Economic Geography General Revision Notes
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A set of transitions
• Industrial to Post-industrial or Informational – Touraine 1969, Bell 1973, Castells 1996. Bell 1973 – changes in social structure associated with tech change (not Marxist) – rise of service/decline of manufacturing, knowledge elite, science-based industries. USSR would fail because it could not shift to a post- industrial paradigm. Castells 1989 The Informational City introduced ‘informational mode of development’ and ‘space of flows’ developed in Castells 1996 The Rise of the Network Society – Informationalism based on value of information itself not just on other aspects of production. (Touraine – commercial PAPER 2 CONN. – industrial – informational).
• Material to Postmaterial – Inglehart 1971. Change in values away from class/material basis – accompanied by mo/pomo shift.
• Organized to disorganized capitalism – Lash & Urry 1987. Fragmentation of social and economic groups and breakdown in distribution of capital and concentration of capitalist power.
• Modern to Postmodern – Giddens, Harvey 1990. Fragmentation of grand narratives and rejection of modernist project, cultural changes associated with other transitions. Critiqued by Harvey 1990 The Condition of Post- Modernity (thriving on uncertainty 70s+, good in concern for difference but dangerous in hollow and rhetorical nature); and Giddens 1990 The Consequences of Modernity, not postmodernism but highly developed modernism based on individual agency and ability to conceive other times/spaces.
• Or – Fordist to Post-Fordist (below) Note many of these transitions were foreseen/theorized quite early on (1970s).
Fordism to Post-Fordism Concept origins in writings of Gramsci. Taylorism = Scientific management theories from late 19th century – “time and motion studies” etc, technical and social division of labour. Sloanism (GM) = Planned obsolescence, marketing etc. Moving assembly line at Ford in 1911. Deskilling, vertical integration (hierarchy), profit-sharing (creating middle class), paternalism (spying on employees), monotonous work, uniformity, economies of scale. Broader social system – middle class, mass production/consumption, suburbanization etc. Bata. ‘Masculine’ dominance of Fordism – broad changes underpinned by change in role of women (Massey 1988). Intensification in 1920s leading
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