Inequality In Global Cities Revision Notes
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Evolution of Global Cities Debate From Geddes 1915, developed by Hall 1966 describing world cities as centres of political power/trade and exchange (comparative, pre-globalization/financialization) –
notably included regional economies – Rhine-Ruhr/Randstadt. Friedmann & Wolff 1982 developed concept including restructuring impacts “agenda for research and action” on world cities. Sassen 1991 focused on 3 global cities – dispersed production requiring centralized command and control, finance & specialized service industries restructuring urban social/economic order. Suburbanization (Fordism) & reurbanization (PoFo). Social polarization.
But narrowly focused, economistic – only 3 cities, only particular kinds of functions. Beaverstock & Taylor 1999 – Hierarchy with variable importance of different functions (finance, legal, accounting, advertising etc.). GAWC research agenda at Loughborough –
Vorley changing categories over time with shifts in methodology, relative importance of Glob cits.
Still oversimplification? Scott 2001 – ‘Global city-regions’ incorporating both concentrated cities and economic regions. If global cities are manifestation of PoFo informationalization, what about PoFo manufacturing/tech? Concentrated in Silicon Valley etc. These are all ‘motors of the global economy’ – flexible production sites both of information and goods, rather than economic command/control centers only places that matter. Cultural importance – LA Film Industry, dispersed production and vertical disintegration decades before general trend (Storper 1994) – urban form – skyscrapers vs. groundscrapers. Global cities/economic regions = similar arguments about network enterprises and importance of collocation.
Brown et. al. 2001 – Regional networks – region/glob cit. interactions. Central America
= region without a global city (or is it?) – so through key link of Miami. ‘Correspondence banking’ – overwhelming majority of transactions through Miami; also reflected in airline routes. Abu-Lughod accused Friedmann and Wolff of basing global city network map in 1982 on a JAL airlines map. Derudder et. al. 2008 – methodology of using airline maps!
Overlapping networks, culturally determined – ie London & Sydney, Latin America &
Madrid etc. Polynesia/Micronesia through NZ/Australia.
Global Cities suggests dichotomy, you’re in or out. But all cities are affected by glob. and narrow definition excludes global functions of many other cities, which may be quite
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