Working Culture And Labour Markets Reading Notes
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Working Culture and Insecurity Good Summary: McDowell 1997 And a good introductory summary of financial system changes – before what was the identified as beginning of post-modernity? The following beginning of restructuring/close modernisation 1970s, 1980s saw a change in financial services, as they suppose, Harvey 1989 times better compression, global cities and new internationally replacing middle class is. And associated social inequalities. Before deregulation, conservative-based ideology of money as everything in which bankers were apotheosis (hence focus of book), before culminating in a end big bang native execs, the Black Monday 1987 discrediting. [cycles… 1987 vs. 2008 – attitudes to inequality etc? Reaction in 1990-2 recession, downshifting etc.]
Hannerz 1990 -- before spectrum between localism and cosmopolitanism – a globally integrated major financial markets doesn’t mean that the people operating in our cosmop forolitan and maybe extremely local in outlook [Granovetter 1983 many weak vs. few strong ties]. The paradox of globalisation leading to re-localisation, new relations between global/local space. POSTMODERNISATION – Harvey 1989, Harvey article, book (differentiation etc.)…
Lash & Urry 1994 Space paradox -- economies of signs & space – production and exchange of commodified signs IT cultural industries/advertising, but also financial products result in the emergence of post-industrial spaces, availability of right type of Labour (both education and youth/personality) and and location of the interaction reinforces the meaning. Architecture and urban design themselves key part of cultural production. Pahl 1988 On Work – confusion/ambiguities about meaning/nature/purpose of work are dominant unresolved question and its entry. Uncertainty about nature of work throws everything else into turmoil [unionisation]. (Sawers & Tabb 1984- Sunbelt/Snowbelt). Decline in secure, stable lifetime employment along with shifted economic centre of gravity from manufacturing heartlands to Sunbelt/Golden Triangle of Bristol London Cambridge in Britain. Old middle class replaced by what Urry 1986 calls new service clubs – different attitudes to work both from all but bourgeoisie/manufacturing base working class – less boundaries between work and leisure, performative positional goods, gentrification. Featherstone 1991 Consumer Culture and Postmodernism. Obsessed with performance, aestheticisation of everyday life which only increases the importance of the body, social constructions, lack of anchoring in local community community, political to shift is due to new constituencies. Baudrillard 1988 Consumption of signs. (New Labour?). intra-action between self-images in real life and in the media, as in the example of bankers. (Zukin 1991 Landscapes of Power [Cities connection].)
WOMEN Structural shift from men to women unable with that low and high end of new service that is. Crisis of male achievement. Critical examination of crisis of masculinity in McDowell 2002. Beginning at school.From the third (1960s) to now half of all women, and from 1/5th to 60% of married women now in workforce. gaining access to previously restricted managerial/professional jobs However, differentiation and inequality within this – growth has been greater in low end, opportunities to return to work after children I use flexible/part-time work are less in the high status service jobs. Badly represented an upper echelons of management/public sector, under 10% in most cases. Charlotte Bronte fun West End versus serious and truly exciting city. Architectural change in the city and its landscapes of power [city’s connection] – from neoclassical expression of the power of money to new post-modernist playful expression, service work redefined as fun. Interconnected work and leisure spaces. Mechanisms that construct and maintain gender segregation in banks. Pipeline (timelag in women’s advancement) versus glass ceiling.
Changes in academic approach Original view —— 1970s/80s – approach to gender based on division of labour, women entered workforce with their attribute is firmly established, rather than work as part of the social construction of gender. Why do cross disciplinary ferment in 1980s including ideas about situated knowledge that it position allergy/reflects on the underpinning later cultural turn in economic geography. Change in feminism ——The place of women – financial services revolution leading to replacement male dominated hierarchal relationship with competitive meritocracy. (In the city because rich —> in the city to become rich). Changing feminism in 1980/1990s three examining the construction of masculinity as not uniform – socially defined. [Tough guise
– simplified construction of masculinity inc. perpetuated by media]. ‘Alternative masculinities’ – Connell 1995. Change in geography —— Enhanced by economic sociology – recognition of cultural embeddedness of economic activity – Granovetter 1985, Thrift 1994 social/cultural determinants of int. financial centers. Cultural turn – perception of work in workplaces as causes of social construction of workers, rather than workers as ‘finished products’
contributing to economy the other way around. In other words the role of work as a creator of social/cultural constructs. Including notion of the foreman’s, space and body as former performance is drawing from Goffman [dissertation]. Foucault -- “capillary powers” – linking analysis of institutional interest in our elections to micro scale social practices/self surveillance to which they are achieved. McDowell argument: Construction of body, of roles, and of architectural & urban space is means by which control is translated to the human scale through the workplace.
How the hegemonic instructions are both masculinity and femininity determined patterns in the workforce? the presence of women in the workforce challenging socially construct an ideal body (Young 1990) Is through the creation of roles, performances in the workplace that gender attributes are created/negotiated both women and men, as well as making it harder for women to advance – dominant masculine culture of banks. Low-end Service -- Christopherson 1989
Casey 1995 In ships between institutional practices work in the post-industrial conditions in the formation of the self. In modernism/typical Western industrial society social basis of society were organised around productive activities of humans (Marx/Durkheim/Weber) Four for change from modern view of the self as fixed/irreducible individual identity. Marx/Durkheim/Freud also a self as historically/socially conditioned, Goffman saw herself not as a fixed entity but as a performance. Post-modernism criticises idea of the self is intrinsic. Before but neglect of analysis and effective institutional process on the formation of herself. Work is important constitute of this. Before transformation of work not only about multi Skilling/job redesign/flexibility – but implications of social cohesion in workplace and society. Foucault -- power held not through the economic sphere (as Marx etc.) but through discourses and their effect on the body and the self. Self constituted by experience of
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