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|Category:||Economics and Management Notes|
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• 'What makes a leader?' Goleman 1998 o 'identifing individuals with the 'right stuff' to be leaders is more art than science' o All leaders 'have a high degree of what has come to be known as 'emotional intelligence'' o IQ 'matters, but mainly as 'threshold capabilities'; that is, they are entry level requirements for executive positions' o Without emotional intelligence 'a person can have the best training in the world, an incisive, analytical mind, and an endless supply of smart ideas, but he still won't make a great leader' o Components of emotional intelligence: Self awareness • 'having a deep understanding of one's emotions, strengths, weaknesses, needs and drives' • 'people with strong self-awareness are neither overly critical nor unrealistically hopeful' - honest • 'recognise how their feelings affect them, other people, and their job performance' • 'knows where he is headed and why' • 'comfortable talking about their limitations and strengths' • 'play to their strengths' • But 'many executives mistake candor about feelings for 'wimpiness'' Self regulation: • 'biological impulses drive our emotions. We cannot do away with them - but we can do much to manage them' • 'frees us from being prisoners of our feelings' • 'able to create an environment of trust and fairness' • 'fewer bad moods at the top mean fewer throughout the organisation' • 'people who have mastered their emotions are able to roll with the changes' • 'impulsiveness often works against them' when they reach the top if not self regulated Motivation: • 'driven to achieve beyond expectations' • 'those with leadership potential are motivated by a deeply embedded desire to achieve for the sake of achievement' • 'passion for the work itself' • 'unflagging energy to do things better' • 'remain optimistic even when the score is against them' • 'commitment to the organisation' Empathy: • 'thoughtfully considering employees' feelings?
• 'deep understanding of the existence and importance of cultural and ethnic differences' Social skills: • 'friendliness with a purpose' • 'have a network in place when the time for action comes' • 'expert persuaders' • 'no leader is an island'
• 'Upper Echelons Theory' Hambrick 2007 o 'executives experiences, values, and personalities greatly influence their interpretations of the situations they face and, in turn, affect their choices' Bounded rationality o 'If a great deal of (managerial) discretion is present, then managerial characteristics will become reflected in strategy and performance' o ''executives' experiences, values, and personalities affect their': Field of vision Selective perception (what they actually see/hear) Interpretation o Depends on culture: US 'arguably more diverse than CEO populations in almost any other country' 'CEOs in Japan are essentially interchangeable'
• 'Managerial leadership: a review of theory and research' Yukl 1989 o 'Leadership has been defined in terms of individual traits, leader behaviour, interaction patterns, role relationships, follower perceptions, influence over followers, influence on task goals, and influence on organisational culture' o Not just scholarly 'reflect deep disagreement about identification of leaders and leadership processes' o 'it is obvious that a person can be a leader without being a manager, and a person can be a manager without leading' o 'indeed, some managers do not even have subordinates' o 'managers are people who do things right and leaders are people who do the right thing' (Bennis & Nanus 1985) o 'managers are concerned about how things get done and leaders are concerned with what things mean to people' (Zalenuk 1977) o 'leaders influence commitment, whereas managers merely carry out position responsibilities and exercise authority' o Power influence approach 'explain leadership effectiveness in terms of amount of power possessed by a leader' Personal power vs position power o Behaviour approach o Trait approach 'massive research effort failed to find any traits that would guarantee leadership success' 'sometimes balance must be achieved between 2 competing trails' o Situational approach 'importance of contextual factors' 'over the long run, effective leaders act to modify the situation to increase their discretion' o 'there is a mystical, romantic quality associated with leadership'
• 'What do managers do?' Hales 1986 o 'The following strands are common, if not universal': 'acting as figurehead and leader of an organisational unit' Liaison 'Monitoring, filtering and disseminating information' 'Allocating resources' Handling disturbances Negotiating Innovating Planning Controlling and directing subordinates o 'What managers do has different durations, rhythms, degrees of uncertainty and origins'
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