Management And Leadership Notes
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|Category:||Economics and Management Notes|
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Pip Reeve 2/5/10 TT 10 W2
What is the relationship between management and leadership?
'It is obvious that a person can be a leader without being a manager, and a person can be a manager without leading,'1 as is suggested by Yukl. Yukl goes on to define management as an 'authority relationship that exists between a manager and subordinates to produce and sell goods and services'2 while a leader has a 'multi-directional influence relationship between a leader and followers with the mutual purpose of accomplishing real change.' 3 It seems clear that there is an overlap between the two terms, as well as being some distinct differences. It is also clear that there are disadvantages and advantages to both management and leadership, 'strong leadership can disrupt order and efficiency, and strong management can discourage risk taking and innovation,'4 however, 'both processes are necessary for the success of an organisation.'5 In this essay I will discuss the differences between the two terms followed by a discussion of any overlap between the terms.
One difference between management and leadership is that management is usually a more formal position. Looking back at Yukl's definitions of management and leadership, management is seen as an authority relationship whereas leadership is defined as a 'multi- directional influence relationship.' This suggests that perhaps managers have more 'position power' where they are able to make people do things purely because of their position in the hierarchy and therefore their authority over their subordinates. On the other hand, leaders are likely to have more 'personal power' where they are able to make people do things because of their character, perhaps they are very good at motivating other people or empathising with them. Of course, it is perfectly possible, and indeed quite likely, for a manager to have a degree of personal power along with their position of authority and for a leader to have some position power along with their personal power. So, there is clearly some overlap between the two terms. In many ways, therefore, being a manager is a much more formal position in which managers use their authority found in the formal hierarchy. However, there is also an extent to which 'the work of management is the management of work,'6 and the work that managers do is defined by the management themselves, which perhaps makes it less formal. Hales suggests that the 'notion of the manager as strategist, planner and thinker is a myth.' 7 The idea of being a strategist is perhaps more associated with a 'leader' who is able to think more about the long term and is less pre-occupied with 'fire fighting' as managers do when they must react to events that occur in the short term. As leaders are often more able to think about the long term and achieve 'missions' there is perhaps a heroic aspect to their role, 'there is a mystical, romantic quality associated with leadership.' 8 So it seems that 'managers value stability, order, and efficiency whereas leaders value flexibility, innovation and adaptation.' 9
Another difference between the two terms is that, on the whole, management is easier to 'learn.' There are practical theories which can be studied and put into practice for management. On the other hand, leadership is much more about charisma and 'emotional
1 'Managerial leadership: A review of theory and research' Yukl 1989 2 'Leadership in organisations' Yukl 2002 3 'Leadership in organisations' Yukl 2002 4 'Leadership in organisations' Yukl 2002 5 'Leadership in organisations' Yukl 2002 6 'What do managers do?' Hales 1986 7 'What do managers do?' Hales 1986 8 'Managerial leadership: A review of theory and research' Yukl 1989 9 'Leadership in organisations' Yukl 2002
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