A-Level Notes > Bishop Vesey's Grammar School A-Level Notes > AQA PHYA4 - Fields and Further Mechanics Notes

Topic 1 Further Mechanics Notes

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Topic 1: Further Mechanics

1. Force, momentum and impulse a. Newton's Law of Motion i. Newton's 1st law of motion states that a body remains at rest or in constant motion, unless acted on by a resultant force ii. Newton's 2nd law of motion states that the rate of change of an object's linear momentum is proportional to the resultant force:

F=

Δ(mv)
=mΔa
Δt

iii. Newton's 3rd law of motion states that every action has an equal and opposite reaction b. Momentum of a body is the body's mass multiplied by the body's velocity: p = m * v c. Impulse of a force is the force x time it acts/the change in momentum of the object: I = F
�(mv) = F�t

2. Collisions and explosions a. Conservation laws i. Principle of conservation of momentum states that the total linear momentum in a system is constant, provided no external forces acts: m1u1+m2u2 = m1v1+m2v2

1. Internal forces can act so that increases in positive momentum may be caused by increases in negative momentum ii. Principle of conservation of energy states that the total energy in a system is always conserve, as energy cannot be destroyed or created

1. Energy can be transformed so increases in kinetic energy may be caused by transformations in energy b. Interactions i. In an elastic collision, there is no loss of kinetic energy: the total kinetic energy is the same before and after the collision ii. In an inelastic collision, there is a loss of kinetic energy: the kinetic energy is transformed into different forms of energy iii. In an explosion, the two bodies move away from one another with equal and opposite amounts of momentum:

mu=m1 v 1+ m2 v2

3. Uniform circular motion a. Speed i. Linear speed is the distance travelled per unit time, which acts at a tangent to the circular path:

v=

2 πr T

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