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Bridging The Development Gap Notes

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Geography A2 Revision Notes Bridging the Development Gap Definitions
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Development: 'Change' and implies that change is for the better. Often refers to economic development which improves people's standard of living. Development Gap: Widening difference in the level of development both within and between countries.

Measuring Development
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Gross Domestic Product (GDP): total value of goods and services produced by a country in a year. o Strength:
 Quantitative not qualitative.
 Data is widely available. o Weakness:
 Only economic, doesn't take anything else into account, e.g. social.
 Can be a wealth differences in the country. It is an average. Gross National Income (GNI): sum of the value added by all resident producers plus any net income from abroad. o Strength:
 Could be more closely tied to income.
 Takes into account the profits of TNCs operating abroad (e.g. Starbucks in the UK's profits go towards USA's GNI). o Weakness:
 Only takes economic factors into account.
 Doesn't take cost of living into account.
 Data is an average, does not recognise the wealth difference in the country. Purchasing Power Parity (PPP): shows what income will purchase when the cost of living is taken into account. o Strength:
 Takes cost of living into account. o Weakness:
 Single economic indicator. Human Development Index (HDI): competitive indicator that considers; years of schooling, GNI per capita PPP and life expectancy at birth. Measured from 0 (worst) to 1 (best). o Strength:
 Quantitative, can be easily compared.
 Considers different aspects of development. 1

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o Weakness:
 Doesn't consider the environment, freedom or political factors. Gender Related Development Index (GDI): measures absolute deviation from gender parity in HDI. How equal the HDI spread is between men and women. o Strength:
 Gender equality, greater income, fertility rates are affected.
 Ensures greater levels of education for all. o Weakness:
 Narrow focused. Gini Co-Efficient: an index used to measure equality of wealth distribution. Measured from 0 (equality) to 100 (complete equality). o Strength:
 Allows for national wealth distribution data. o Weakness:
 Countries could refuse to provide data or provide false data. Environmental Performance Index (EPI): calculates and aggregates 20 environmental indicators reflecting national scale environmental performance. Higher the score the better. o Strength:
 Shows how developed environmental policies are in a country. o Weakness:
 Considers policies not actual improvement.
 Won't get data from all countries, e.g. Uganda.

Best/
Highest

Uganda

India

GDP (2013)

21,483

DR/1000 (2014) GNI/Capit a PPP (2010) HDI (2013)

UK

Finland

Nigeria

1,876,79 2,521,3 7 81

256,842

521,803

10.97

7.35

9.34

10.51

13.16

1,370

5,350

35,760

38,480

5,360

0.484

0.586

0.892

0.879

0.504

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GDI (2013)

0.896

0.828

0.993

1.006

0.839

Gini CoEfficient

45.7

36.8

35.97

26.88

43.7

39.18

31.23

77.35

75.72

39.20

EPI UK Uganda

India

Finland

Nigeria

Development Continuum Why the Development Gap has Arisen
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Case Study: Uganda o Factors:
 Landlocked
 Natural disasters
 Lack of investment
 Health
 Economic water scarcity
 Infrastructure
 Education
 Few companies/people to tax
 Political instability and corruption
 Trade
 Colonial legacy
 Marginalised in terms of international decisionmaking
 Conflict o Theories:
 Development cable
 Dependency theory
 Poverty Cycle
 World systems theory
 Core and periphery theory
 Modernisation theory

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Theories: Development Cable: o Like an electric cable - the power to drive countries from primitive to more advanced states. o Core is economic growth, technology and enterprise. o Outer is many different aspects of growth. o Strength: Holistic view - well varied. o Weakness: Doesn't explain why China might be the next superpower.

Dependency Theory: o A.G. Frank o Capital core keeps the peripheral states poor on purpose. o Low value goods exported from the periphery to the core and high valued goods are exported from the core to the periphery.
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o Core exploit cheap goods, take the most skilled workers and sell their manufactured goods. o Highly skilled people migrate to the core, loans to the periphery. o Everything benefits the core. o Developed world becomes wealthier. o Strengths:
 Prevents the periphery state becoming restless.
 Fits well with direct colonial rule and neocolonialism to an extent, Asian Tigers have done well out of it.
 UK still has colonies that are not under direct control but are still used for its resources such as Ghana - proof it is correct. o Weaknesses:
 Periphery remains poor.
 Doesn't explain how countries such as the BRICs or Asian Tigers have emerged as once they were on the periphery as well.

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Poverty Cycle: o Strength:
 Shows causation, how one event can lead to another.
 Can be general and specific. o Weakness:
 Shows no route to 'break free'.

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Doesn't consider a route cause.

World Systems Theory o Wallerstein o Adaptation of dependency theory. o Contains a core, semi periphery and periphery. o Neo-Marxist theory. o Technology was an important factor. o Strengths:
 More dynamic, e.g. South Korea since WWII.
 BRICs, Asian Tigers and other NICs better.
 Includes integration of political and economic decision making, why countries have shifted. o Weaknesses:

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Countries such as India and China represent another stage of growth. Oversimplified. Outdated, was proposed a long time ago. Believes in the emergence of the Worlds Socialist Government. This reflects Wallerstein's ideology and belief.

Core and Periphery Model: o Friedmann, 1966. o Outlined four stages in the sequences of the development of the space economy:
 Pre Industrial; agricultural, society, localised economies, small scale settlement structure, isolated, dispersed, low mobility (not much movement).
 Transitional; economic growth in the core, industrial growth, trade and mobility increase.
 Industrial; economic growth causes more economic centres, increase in production cost in the core.
 Post - Industrial; urban system becomes fully integrated, inequalities are reduced. o Argued that the spread effects (aid, technology, investment) help to reduce spatial inequalities over time. o Strength:
 Explains how it may increase or reduce over time
- simple and transitional. o Weakness:
 Doesn't take external factors into account.
 Myrdal - Backwash effect, will increase development gap over time.

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