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Bridging The Development Gap Notes

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Geography A2 Revision Notes Bridging the Development Gap Definitions


Development: 'Change' and implies that change is for the better. Often refers to economic development which improves people's standard of living. Development Gap: Widening difference in the level of development both within and between countries.

Measuring Development




Gross Domestic Product (GDP): total value of goods and services produced by a country in a year. o Strength:
 Quantitative not qualitative.
 Data is widely available. o Weakness:
 Only economic, doesn't take anything else into account, e.g. social.
 Can be a wealth differences in the country. It is an average. Gross National Income (GNI): sum of the value added by all resident producers plus any net income from abroad. o Strength:
 Could be more closely tied to income.
 Takes into account the profits of TNCs operating abroad (e.g. Starbucks in the UK's profits go towards USA's GNI). o Weakness:
 Only takes economic factors into account.
 Doesn't take cost of living into account.
 Data is an average, does not recognise the wealth difference in the country. Purchasing Power Parity (PPP): shows what income will purchase when the cost of living is taken into account. o Strength:
 Takes cost of living into account. o Weakness:
 Single economic indicator. Human Development Index (HDI): competitive indicator that considers; years of schooling, GNI per capita PPP and life expectancy at birth. Measured from 0 (worst) to 1 (best). o Strength:
 Quantitative, can be easily compared.
 Considers different aspects of development. 1




o Weakness:
 Doesn't consider the environment, freedom or political factors. Gender Related Development Index (GDI): measures absolute deviation from gender parity in HDI. How equal the HDI spread is between men and women. o Strength:
 Gender equality, greater income, fertility rates are affected.
 Ensures greater levels of education for all. o Weakness:
 Narrow focused. Gini Co-Efficient: an index used to measure equality of wealth distribution. Measured from 0 (equality) to 100 (complete equality). o Strength:
 Allows for national wealth distribution data. o Weakness:
 Countries could refuse to provide data or provide false data. Environmental Performance Index (EPI): calculates and aggregates 20 environmental indicators reflecting national scale environmental performance. Higher the score the better. o Strength:
 Shows how developed environmental policies are in a country. o Weakness:
 Considers policies not actual improvement.
 Won't get data from all countries, e.g. Uganda.




GDP (2013)


DR/1000 (2014) GNI/Capit a PPP (2010) HDI (2013)




1,876,79 2,521,3 7 81



















GDI (2013)






Gini CoEfficient











EPI UK Uganda




Development Continuum Why the Development Gap has Arisen

Case Study: Uganda o Factors:
 Landlocked
 Natural disasters
 Lack of investment
 Health
 Economic water scarcity
 Infrastructure
 Education
 Few companies/people to tax
 Political instability and corruption
 Trade
 Colonial legacy
 Marginalised in terms of international decisionmaking
 Conflict o Theories:
 Development cable
 Dependency theory
 Poverty Cycle
 World systems theory
 Core and periphery theory
 Modernisation theory



Theories: Development Cable: o Like an electric cable - the power to drive countries from primitive to more advanced states. o Core is economic growth, technology and enterprise. o Outer is many different aspects of growth. o Strength: Holistic view - well varied. o Weakness: Doesn't explain why China might be the next superpower.

Dependency Theory: o A.G. Frank o Capital core keeps the peripheral states poor on purpose. o Low value goods exported from the periphery to the core and high valued goods are exported from the core to the periphery.


o Core exploit cheap goods, take the most skilled workers and sell their manufactured goods. o Highly skilled people migrate to the core, loans to the periphery. o Everything benefits the core. o Developed world becomes wealthier. o Strengths:
 Prevents the periphery state becoming restless.
 Fits well with direct colonial rule and neocolonialism to an extent, Asian Tigers have done well out of it.
 UK still has colonies that are not under direct control but are still used for its resources such as Ghana - proof it is correct. o Weaknesses:
 Periphery remains poor.
 Doesn't explain how countries such as the BRICs or Asian Tigers have emerged as once they were on the periphery as well.


Poverty Cycle: o Strength:
 Shows causation, how one event can lead to another.
 Can be general and specific. o Weakness:
 Shows no route to 'break free'.



Doesn't consider a route cause.

World Systems Theory o Wallerstein o Adaptation of dependency theory. o Contains a core, semi periphery and periphery. o Neo-Marxist theory. o Technology was an important factor. o Strengths:
 More dynamic, e.g. South Korea since WWII.
 BRICs, Asian Tigers and other NICs better.
 Includes integration of political and economic decision making, why countries have shifted. o Weaknesses:



Countries such as India and China represent another stage of growth. Oversimplified. Outdated, was proposed a long time ago. Believes in the emergence of the Worlds Socialist Government. This reflects Wallerstein's ideology and belief.

Core and Periphery Model: o Friedmann, 1966. o Outlined four stages in the sequences of the development of the space economy:
 Pre Industrial; agricultural, society, localised economies, small scale settlement structure, isolated, dispersed, low mobility (not much movement).
 Transitional; economic growth in the core, industrial growth, trade and mobility increase.
 Industrial; economic growth causes more economic centres, increase in production cost in the core.
 Post - Industrial; urban system becomes fully integrated, inequalities are reduced. o Argued that the spread effects (aid, technology, investment) help to reduce spatial inequalities over time. o Strength:
 Explains how it may increase or reduce over time
- simple and transitional. o Weakness:
 Doesn't take external factors into account.
 Myrdal - Backwash effect, will increase development gap over time.


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