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5. Germany Revision Notes The Rise Of The Nazis Notes
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5. Germany Revision Notes The Rise Of The Nazis Revision
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KAISER TO FUHRER - THE RISE OF THE NAZIS SECTION 5: THE RISE OF THE NAZIS
1. Hitler and the foundation of the NSDAP ideology
2. The early years and the Munich Putsch
3. Recovery and laying the basis of success 1925-28
4. The switch to the rural voter 1928-29
5. Breakthrough 1929-30
1. HITLER AND THE FOUNDATION OF THE NSDAP IDEOLOGY
The Nazi Party was born out of humble origins.
Jan 1919 Anton Drexler founded it as the German Workers' Party and it developed against a background of political turmoil as the new Weimar Republic struggled to establish itself
Hitler came into contact with the nationalist and racist German Workers' Party (DAP) as he was employed in the politically charged atmosphere of 1919 as a kind of spy by the political department of the Bavarian section of the German army.
Hitler was a speaker of talent - at least to those who shared his crass prejudices
October 1919 Hitler made his first address to the DAP, won increasing influence in its councils and became one of its most publicly prominent members
24 February 1920 the organisation changed its name to the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP) just as Hitler, along with the party's founder drew up the party's 25-point programme in February 1920
Included in this manifesto, which was written by Drexler and Hitler, were the themes that remained constant throughout the 1920s and beyond; the revision of the Treaty of Versailles, the ending of reparations, the destruction of the establishment, the creation of living space for the German people, the creation of a national community and anti-Semitism.
Party was meant to combine nationalist and 'socialist' elements
Mid-1921 Hitler driving force behind the party. Although he still held only the post of propaganda chief, it was his powerful speeches that had impressed local audiences and had helped to increase party membership to 3300
Developed early propaganda techniques such as the Nazi salute, the swastika and the uniform - gave the party a clear and recognisable identity
KAISER TO FUHRER - THE RISE OF THE NAZIS
Drexler and some of the other members of the committee were alarmed by Hitler's increasing domination of the party and so tried to limit his influence
However, Hitler showed his ability to manoeuvre and gamble by, despite being thought of by the party as the most influential speaker, offering to resign
In the ensuing power struggle he was quickly able to mobilise support at two meetings in July 1921 and was invited back in glory. Drexler resigned and Hitler became chairman and Fuhrer of the party. Having gained supreme control over the party in Munich, Hitler aimed to subordinate all the other right-wing groups under his party's leadership and certainly, in the years 1921-3, the party was strengthened by a number of significant developments:
The armed squads were organised and set up as the SA in 1921 as a paramilitary unit led by Ernst Rohm. It was now used to organise planned thuggery and violence. Most notoriously, the conflict in the town of Coburg degenerated into a pitched battle between the communists and the SA, but it showed how politically vital it was to win control of the streets
The party established its first newspaper in 1921, the Volkischer Beobachter (the People's Observer)
1922 - Hitler won the backing of Julius Streicher, who previously had run a rival right-wing party in northern Bavaria. Streicher also published his own newspaper, Der Sturmer, which was overtly anti-Semitic
Hitler was fortunate to win the support of the influential Hermann Goring, who joined the party in 1922. He was born into a Bavarian landowning family, while his wife was a leading Who supported Hitler in the early years?
Swedish aristocrat. They made many very helpful social contacts in which gave with Hitlervarious and Nazism Munich HitlerMunich, came into contact peoplerespectability. who were subsequently to be of great importance to the Nazi movement and some of whom became life-long friends: By 1923, the party had a membership of about 20,000. Hitler certainly enjoyed impressive personal reputation and, influential as a result,
- distinguished WW1 fighter pilot with contacts in Nazism successfully established an influential role on the extreme right in Munich bourgeois society. His support made helpful social contacts in Munich
- Bavaria. However, despite Nazi efforts, it sill proved difficult to control all gave Hitler and Nazism respectability the radical right-wing political groups, which remained independent
- the ideologist of the movement
Rudolf Hess -across servedGermany. in Hitler'sThe regiment duringwas the war organisations Nazi Party very much a fringe
- ato member of theof army staff in Munich who recruited former party,Rohm limited the region Bavaria. servicemen and Freikorps members into the movement and thus established the basis of the SA
Julius Streicher - published his own newspaper, Der Sturmer, which was
2. THE EARLY YEARS AND THE MUNICH PUTSCH overtly anti-Semitic with a range of seedy articles devoted to sex and violence 2 These people shared Hitler's view that Germany had been betrayed. They held a violent nationalist ardour that often encompassed racism and in particular anti-
KAISER TO FUHRER - THE RISE OF THE NAZIS
The Munich Beer Hall Putsch1923 How did Hitler manage to turn the failure of the Munich Beer Hall putsch to his advantage?
Hitler plotted to 'March on Berlin' along with Von Kahr and Lossow. They aimed to mobilise all military forces from Bavaria - including sections of the German army, the police, the SA and other paramilitaries - and then, by closing in on Berlin, to seize national power. Hitler's plan was unrealistic and doomed because:
He grossly overestimated the level of public support for a putsch He showed a lack of real planning He relied too heavily on the promise of support of Lundendorff At the eleventh hour, Kahr and Lossow, fearing failure, decided to hold back
8th November when Kahr was addressing a large audience at one of Munich's beer halls, Hitler and the Nazis took control of the meeting, declared a 'national revolution' and forced Kahr and Lossow to support it. The next day Hitler, Goring, Streicher, Rohm, Himmler and Lundendorff marched into the city of Munich with 2000 SA men, but they had no real military backing, and the attempted take-over of Munich was easily crushed by the Bavarian police. 14 Nazis were killed and Hitler was arrested on a charge of treason In many respects the putsch was a farce - the Nazi Party was banned from Bavaria. Hitler stood trial for his part in the attempt to 3
KAISER TO FUHRER - THE RISE OF THE NAZIS overthrow the Weimar democracy by force, receiving the minimum sentence of five years imprisonment. With Hitler in jail and the party led by the ineffectual Alfred Rosenberg, the Nazis were weak and in disarray. However, Hitler gained significant political advantages from the episode:
He turned his trial into a great propaganda success both for himself and for the Nazi cause. He played on all his rhetorical skills and evoked admiration for patriotism. For the first time he made himself a national figure Won the respect of many other right-wing nationalists for having the courage to act The leniency of his sentence (it was actually reduced to 10 months despite the severity of his crime) seemed like encouragement on the part of the judiciary He used his months in prison to write and to reassess his political strategy, including dictating to his colleague the text of what became Mein Kampf - ('My Struggle')
Mein Kampf: in what is a generally incoherent and Hitler reconsidered his tactics rambling text, Hitler attempted to following Putsch, and contained the key elements of the Nazi The 25 the point programme explain his world view or outlook. decided use the Hitler Weimar Party to message. developed this ideology speeches The mainin points wereand the his system to try to gain power not books Mein Kampf (1925) and Zweiteselimination Buch (1928). of the Jewry from through force, but through German life, the provision of Hitler's main ideas…
living space for the Germanic peoples in the east and the German nationalism Racial ideas destruction of communism. Germany should be strong, and all At the core of Hitler's ideas were false German-speaking peoples should be notions about race. These ideas had united in order to help maximise their origins in pseudo-scientific German strength. To develop German notions of the day. Hitler believed that power, colonial expansion into differences between racial groups Eastern Europe was needed. This were profound and significant. 'living space' was called Lebensraum. Furthermore, he thought that races were In order for Germany to be strong, the organised into a hierarchy with Aryans, Anti-Semitism Social Darwinism Treaty of Versailles should be a Germanic-Nordic race, at the top. As a repudiated. Hitler believed Jews to be a race and Hitler also subscribed to Social Darwinist German nationalist, Hitler wanted developed the notion that Aryan ideas. Thetonotion of theits'survival of the Germany maximise strength, Fascism strength would be compromised and fittest' washeused as a was moral principle by something thought only possible polluted through interbreeding with Hitler who believed that not only did the if a racially pure Aryan society was The philosophy of Hitler and the Nazis was fascism. Jews, whom he regarded as a vastly fittest orinstrongest survive, created Germany.ofInspecies his view racial but Fascism combines a usually4racist nationalism with inferior racial group. Hitler also believed that it equalled was morally right that the purity national strength. militarism and belief in a strong state and strong that Jews were engaged in a plot to sap strongest triumph. Thus 'weaker' authoritarian leadership. Fascism is anti-democratic Aryan racial strength through races and people should be eradicated and anti-socialist.
KAISER TO FUHRER - THE RISE OF THE NAZIS
3. RECOVERY AND LAYING THE BASIS OF SUCCESS 1925-28 Upon Hitler's release, he sets about regaining a grip on the party and reorganising the party machine to increases its effectiveness:
Hitler persuaded the Chancellor of Bavaria to lift the ban on the party in 1925 1925 small bodyguard for Hitler led by Heinrich Himmler, the SS was formed Bamberg Conference 1926, Hitler asserted his ideology and the Fuhrerprinzip Hitler also established a national party network during this time. Regional party bosses, called gauleiters, were appointed by and accountable to Hitler. This party structure assisted with election campaigning and the Nazi Party takeover This era would also see the development of many of the party organisations that would later help the Nazis to target and involve various groups in German society: Nazi organisations were set up for doctors and teachers, and an agricultural movement was established in 1930 to try and draw in the peasantry.
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