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Animal Behaviour Notes

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Animal Behaviour Explain the advantages to organisms of innate behaviour: Innate behaviour is behaviour by animals that is:

Instinctive Genetically determined Automatic Stereotyped (all organisms of a species perform the behaviour) Inflexible

Advantages of innate behaviour:

Innate responses are generally rapid - organisms can react quickly to their environments (predators etc.) Innate behaviour suits species that have short lifespans - they don't have time to learn behaviours Suits species with no parental care/solitary lifestyles as they can't learn behaviours from other members of the species Example of escaping from danger: If the worm receives a touch on its anterior end, nerve impulses race along these neurones. As they reach the muscles in the body wall, they cause the longitudinal muscles to contract. The worm's body immediately shortens. Its chaetae - tiny stiff bristles on its underside - stick into the wall of its burrow so that this part is anchored as the body contracts. The result is a very rapid withdrawal of the worm into its burrow, away from the danger.

Describe escape reflexes, taxes and kineses as examples of genetically determined innate behaviours;

See point above for example of escape reflex in worms Taxes - A directional locomotory response - for example, fly maggots move away from light sources (this is an example of negative phototaxis). Maggots have two light receptors on either end, as they move they wave their heads from side to side - if the light reaching the receptors isn't equal the maggot turns, if it is equal it moves straight on.


Kineses- a response involving a changed of activity -

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