This is a sample of our (approximately) 4 page long Biotechnology notes, which we sell as part of the OCR Biology F215 Notes collection, a A package written at Eastbourne College in 2013 that contains (approximately) 48 pages of notes across 10 different documents.
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Biotechnology Biotechnology uses microorganisms and enzymes to make useful products. Candidates should be able to:
State that Biotechnology is the industrial use of living organisms (or parts of living organisms) to produce food, drugs or other products.
Explain why microorganisms are often used in biotechnological processes.
• They generally have rapid life cycles, so that large populations can be built up quickly.
• All prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea) reproduce asexually, as do many other typesof microorganisms, so the populations are genetically identical and all the individuals carry out the same metabolic processes.
• They tend to have very specific and simple requirements for growth, so can be grown in fermenters under controlled conditions with minimal attention.
• They can often be grown using waste materials from industry that would otherwise have no use and could be costly to dispose of.
• No-one minds what is done to microorganisms, so their use does not usually raise ethical questions.
• Bacteria have only a single copy of each gene, so if a gene is altered through gene technology there will be no other copies of that gene to mask it.
• The ways in which the expression of genes is controlled are relatively simple in bacteria compared to eukaryotes, making them more straightforward for genetic modification.
• Archaea and, to a lesser extent, bacteria have a very wide range of metabolic pathways, which may be developed for an equally wide range of human purposes.
• Many archaea, and also some bacteria, have evolved to live in very hot environments, and the enzymes and other substances that they produce are able to work at high temperatures.
Describe, with the aid of diagrams, and explain the standard growth
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