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China Notes

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Ally with USSR

02/02/2015

The Chinese Civil War:
-1931- Nationalists (Guomindang) and Communists (CCP)
-Allied during WW2 but resumed fighting after the war
-Stalin & West had supported the nationalists (US sent millions in aid)
-October 1949 Mao Zedong became new leader
-Nationalists flee to Taiwan The power balance was altered USSR were the first to recognise Mao's communist China- Quickly signed Treaty of Friendship
-To the West 'fall' of China was evidence of the Domino theory, their policy in South East Asia changed dramatically Why did USSR and China ally?
-Defence a security
-Learn from USSR 'our best friend from whom we must learn'
-Economic growth and aid
-United communist front
-One in the eye for USA
-Economic benefits, trade and loans
-Secures them not to ally with West

-December 1949- Mao travelled for face to face talks with Stalin in Moscow
-Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance:
-Economic aid of $300 million
-Machinery and Equipment- Aluminium plant in Henan
-Formal alliance-Soviet military assistance
-Chinese superiority over the province of Manchuria restored, handing back railways
-Mongolia stayed in Soviet Sphere
-Refused to give aid to conquer Taiwan
-No joint revolutionary strategy for East Asia
-Agreement to ban all non-Soviet foreigners from Manchuria
-Helped with the economic modernisation of China
-6x increase in Sino-Soviet trade between 1950-56
-1956 60% of Chinese trade was with USSR
-9313 Chinese technical experts trained at top Russian universities
-38,000 given vocational training in Siberia
-Nationalists also held control of the Taiwanese Islands
-USA refused to acknowledge the existence of communist China and recognised the regime of Chiang Kai-Shek in Taiwan
-1951- United Defence Assistance Agreement - signed US and Taiwan First Taiwan Crisis-1955:

-Sept. 1954- Mao decided to bomb the island of Quemoy
-Show his displeasure for SEATO
-Galvanise Chinese population behind nationalist cause
-Hoped to cement alliance with USSR US response:
-Signed mutual defence pact with Chang Kai-Shek, promising to defend Taiwan from communist invasion
-Formosa Resolution-Allowed Eisenhower to take whatever military action he thought necessary to defend Taiwan
-Eisenhower announced any move by the communists towards could be met by nuclear weapons-brinkmanship Come to an end:
-Guomindang did not back down
-Communists managed to win back the Taschen Islands in 1955- so were willing to take a more moderate line on Quemoy and Matsu
-Negotiations began in 1955
-China backed down and agreed to a ceasefire Second Taiwan Crisis:1958
-New shelling of Quemoy and a build up of Chinese troops
-US vessels were fired on Taiwan straights and the US prepared for war Why?

-Mao was frustrated by the lack of concessions and negotiations
-Test US commitment to Taiwan
-Stir up 'revolutionary enthusiasm'
-Tie down USSR to defence of China Come to an End:
-USSR refused to give China any support in attacking Taiwan
-Did publically stand for China to stop US ideas
-Oct.1958 Mao and Chinese Politburo had come to the conclusion that Quemoy and Matsu- were a valuable tool to apply pressure to the USA and Guomindang Impact of Taiwan Crises:
-Khrushchev feared Chinese foreign policy could pull USSR into nuclear war
-Mao was rash and dangerous
-Mao felt he could not rely on USSR
-Believed Khrushchev was too willing to compromise with the West How important was Ideology to Mao?
-Sino-Soviet treaty favoured USSR- China clearly junior partner
-Mao felt that attempting to advance the cause of world communism would improve china's standing
-He wanted to focus on the 'intermediate zone'- Asia, Africa and Latin America China was to become the supported of the oppressed people who were going through decolonisation
-Defensive-USA would have to control defensive zone before it could attack USSR or China

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