Factors Ending The Cold War Notes
This is a sample of our (approximately) 10 page long Factors Ending The Cold War notes, which we sell as part of the A2 History Notes collection, a A package written at Heathfield School in 2015 that contains (approximately) 116 pages of notes across 25 different documents.
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Factors Ending The Cold War Revision
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Factors Ending the Cold War
The role of personalities Reagan & the triumphalists:
Triumphalist argument- Regan's hard-line approach put huge economic and military pressure on the USSR
USSR could no longer compete with US defence spending
USSR had to abandon the arms race and the Cold War
- 53% increase in US defence budget (Oct. 1981)- fund a B1 bomber, neutron bomb, stealth aircraft programmes, deployment of MX missiles and expansion of Navy
-SDI (March 1983)
-Anti-Soviet rhetoric- 'Evil Empire'
-Reagan Doctrine- US military and financial measures to combat communism (Afghanistan)
-Cruise and Pershing II missiles deployed in Europe Criticism of Interpretation:
1982-84, Reagan failed to extract concessions from Soviet leader, merely prolonged Cold War with hard-line approach
Offer to share SDI technology, contradicts idea that USA tried to undermine Soviet economy
SDI was deemed impractical by Soviets, put limited pressure
1985- Constructive engagement was more significant (1987 INF treaty & 1991 START treaty)
Ignores Gorbachev's 'New Thinking', internal problems of USSR and discontent in Eastern Europe
Reinforced Reagan's anti-communist rhetoric- Oct. 1982- 'Pitiless ideology only survives because it is maintained by force'
November 1983- allowed USA to deploy cruise missiles in GB
Acted as Regan's unofficial envoy by promoting US policy to other West European governments
1984- invited Gorbachev to London and established a good working relationship- 'this is a man I can do business with' Helped Reagan start dialogue with Gorbachev and acted as an effective diplomatic link between the two
Pope Jean Paul II:
Inspiring Catholics in Eastern Europe & moral support for trade union Solidarity
Visits to Poland- 1979, 1983 and 1987- showed Catholicism commanded public loyalty not communism
12 million Poles saw the Pope on his 1979- 'gigantic anticommunist plebiscite'- Michael Burleigh
January 1981- blessed Lech Walesa (Solidarity leader) in Rome
Speeches- 'Do not be afraid' (1979) made polish people more confident and inspired anti-communist movements
-Influence had it's limits- Support in Poland and Baltic states, elsewhere in Eastern Europe, it had less impact
-Worked to create a genuine East-West understanding by adopting new policies to build trust, reduce Cold War tensions and solve the USSR's economic problems Key actions:
-Pursued arms reduction, reduce risk of nuclear war and ease economic burden on the USSR 1987, INF treaty, dismantled a whole class of intermediate range missiles
1991- START agreement, reduced overall nuclear arsenals by 30%
-Removed ideological basis, promoted glasnost and perestroika UN speech- 1988, abandoned Brezhnev doctrine, endorsed freedom of speech and dismissed Marxist- Leninism as irrelevant
Perestroika reforms introduced into the Soviet economy in 1986
April 1989- Told Eastern European governments they would have to govern without Soviet support
Glasnost- gave satellite countries right to choose their own paths Ended 'old style' Soviet aggression and expansionism 1988- Soviet forced in Eastern Europe reduced to 500,000
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