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Ch 9 10 11 Notes

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Chapter 9- cloning (a) outline the differences between reproductive and non-reproductive cloning; (b) describe the production of natural clones in plants using the example of vegetative propagation in elm

trees; (c) describe the production of artificial clones of plants from tissue culture; (d) discuss the advantages and disadvantages of plant cloning in agriculture (HSW6a, 6b, 7c); (e) describe how artificial clones of animals can be produced; (f) discuss the advantages and disadvantages of cloning animals (HSW4, 6a, 6b, 7c). Reproductive cloning: cloning to produce a whole organism Non-reproductive cloning: use of stem cells in order to generate replacement cells, tissues or organs which can be used to treat particular diseases Cloning: production of genetically identical organisms Vegetative propagation: asexual reproduction in plants

If a parent plant has a particular set of genetically determining features- offspring will have them too
 If a particular individual is well adapted to its environment, then any offspring produced will inherit theses features and also have a good chance of surviving
 E.g. strawberry plants produce runners, potatoes in tubers English Elm tree

Reproduced by suckering- growth of new trees from the roots of the parent All trees are genetically identical and are susceptible to fungus, Dutch elm disease Beetle larvae fly to a healthy tree and feed on its bark-fungus grows in the outer layer of xylem and blocks them so water cannot be transported- tree dies When elm is killed roots stay alive and often produce new suckers- but they are too affected With no genetic variation, apart from the possibility of a mutation there is no hope for English Elm tree to become resistant

Artificial vegetative propagation: 1) Taking cuttings:
 A section of stem is cut
 Cut end of stem is then treated with plant hormones to encourage growth, it is then planted
 Cutting forms a new plant which is identical to parent 2) Grafting
 A shoot section of a woody plat is joined to an already growing root and stem- graft grows Tissue culture is vegetative propagation on a large scale e.g micropropagation by callus

A small piece of tissue is taken from the plant to be cloned (usually from shoot tip)explants Explant is placed on a nutrient growth medium Cell in the tissue divide, but do not differentiate- form mass of undifferentiated cellscallus

After a few weeks a single callus cell can be removed from the mass and placed on a growing medium containing plant hormones that encourages shoot growth After a few weeks the growing shoots are transferred onto a different growing medium containing different hormone conc that encourages root growth The growing plants are then transferred to a greenhouse

Advantages Farmers' cost is reduced because all the crops are ready for harvest at the same time Farmers know what the crop plant produced will be like because it is a clone form parent with known features Carried out any time of the year Very large quantities of genetically identical plants can be produced from one parent

Disadvantages Unable to adapt to climate change Loss of genetic variation

Susceptible to disease Labour intensive

Cloning in animals (2 methods) Splitting embryos (all offspring are identical to each other but not to the surrogate)

Cells from developing embryos can be separated with each one going on to produce a separate genetically identical organisms

Nuclear transfer using enucleated eggs also known as somatic cell nuclear transfer- dolly

A differentiated cell from an adult is taken and its nucleus is placed into a egg cell which has its nucleus removed (enucleated) Egg goes through the stages of development using genetic information from the inserted nucleus Can be used on animals which are too old to asexually reproduce

Advantages High value animals- cows with a high milk yield Quickly reproduced

Rare animals can be cloned

Disadvantages Uncertainties of health of cloned animalshave short life span Animal welfare- high value animals not produced. Some strains of meat produced chickens are unable to walk Loss of genetic variation

Non-reproductive cloning

Since cells are genetically identical they will not be rejected Cloning of organs would end problem of waiting for donor organs to available for transplant Cloned cells can be used to generate any cell type because they are totipotent Using cloned cells is likely to be less dangerous than major operation


Regeneration of heart muscle cells following a heart attack Repair of nervous tissue destroyed by diseases Repairing the spinal cord of those paralysed by an accident

Chapter 10-biotechnology

(a) state that biotechnology is the industrial use of living organisms (or parts of living organisms) to produce food, drugs or other products (HSW6a); (b) explain why microorganisms are often used in biotechnological processes; (c) describe, with the aid of diagrams, and explain the standard growth curve of a microorganism in a closed culture; (d) describe how enzymes can be immobilised; (e) explain why immobilised enzymes are used in large-scale production; (f) compare and contrast the processes of continuous culture and batch culture; (g) describe the differences between primary and secondary metabolites; (h) explain the importance of manipulating the growing conditions in a fermentation vessel in order to maximise the yield of product required; (i) explain the importance of asepsis in the manipulation of microorganisms.

Biotechnology is the industrial use of living organisms Why are microbes used in industry
 They have a rapid lifestyle- larger pop can be built
 Reproduce using asexual reproduction- pop are genetically identical and carry out the same metabolic processes
 Grown using waste material that would have no other use
 Does not raise ethical questions
 Some have evolved to survive a high temperature Growth curves
 Lag phase: only a few individuals, still acclimatising to their habitat. Rate of reproduction is low, and the growth in population size is slow.
 Log phase: resources are plentiful and conditions are good. The rate of reproduction is fast and exceeds mortality. The population size increases rapidly. Cells are growing and dividing at their max rate. Only limitation is their own in build capacity
 Stationary phase: the rate of growth begins to slow down - one or more nutrient/mineral is beginning to run out. The habitat itself cannot support a larger population. Rate of reproduction and mortality are equal. Population size stays stable. Population size has levelled out at the carrying capacity (maximum population size that can be maintained over a period of time in a particular habitat)
 Death phase: nutrients/minerals levels becomes so low that more reproduction cannot take place. Build-up of waste. Death rate is greater than birth rate- population declines Immobilised enzymes Gel entrapment e.g. lactase in alginate

Enzyme solution is mixed with sodium alginate sol. - droplets of this solution is added to calcium chloride- droplets turns into beads which contains the enzyme Beads can be tightly packed into a column- liquid substrate (milk) can be trickled over the beads- product trickles out from the bottom It is collected and purified

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