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Alcohols Notes

This is a sample of our (approximately) 3 page long Alcohols notes, which we sell as part of the Chemistry AS Notes collection, a A package written at Manchester High School For Girls Sixth Form in 2013 that contains (approximately) 54 pages of notes across 17 different documents.

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Unit 2: 16 Alcohols

ALCOHOLS

General formula - CnH2n+1OH CLASSIFYING ALCOHOLS - the classification of an organic compound depends on the number of alkyl groups that the carbon connected to the functional group is attached to. e.g. propan-2-ol is a secondary alcohol. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ALCOHOLS:
-The OH bond in alcohols means the hydrogen bonding occurs between molecules therefore higher mp/bp than other molecules of similar relative molecular mass.
-Soluble in water due to hydroxy groups forming hydrogen bonds with water molecules.

ETHANOL PRODUCTION

Ethanol is a carbon-neutral fuel - causes no change in the total amount of carbon dioxide present in the air - (not if fractional distillation is used) METHOD

Rate of reaction

Quality of product

Raw Material

Process/costs

FAST

PURE

Ethene from cracking crude oil

Continuous process so expensive equipment need but low labour costs

FERMENTATION OF YEAST

SLOW

LOW YIELD

Sugars -

(Exothermic process)

(temp can't be high due to denature of enzyme)

(up to 15%)

a renewable resource

Batch process so cheap equipment needed but intensive labour

HYDRATION OF ETHENE (Catalytic hydration using steam.) CONDITIONS:

>Conc Phosphoric Acid catalyst
>300°C and 60atm

CONDITIONS:
>Catalyst is yeast that produces enzymes
>Optimum temp for enzymes is 37°C

IMPURE (must be distilled)

BIOFUEL: fuel produced from renewable biological resources.

CHEMISTRY AS NOTES

51

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