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Equilibria Notes

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Unit 2: 9 Equilibria

EQUILIBRIA REVERSIBLE REACTIONS are reactions that do not go completion and occur in both directions. The Dynamic Nature of Equilibria This is the reactions of; 2NO2

N2O4

Nitrogen dioxide and dinitrogen tetroxide reach equilibrium at a ratio of 2:1 The graph shows this.

Other Examples of Reversible reactions;

1. Potassium dichromate (orange)

Potassium chromate (yellow) - addition of NaOH

2. CoCl2 (blue) CoCl2.6H2O (pink) - adding water to the crystals make them turn pink, this is a good test for water

REVERSIBLE REACTIONS CAN BE REPRESENTED AS aA + bB

cC + dD

When A and B react to form C and D at the same rate at which C and D react to form A and B, the system is at equilibrium.

DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM exists when the rate of the forward reactions is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction.

-the overall concentration of the reactants and products is constant.

-dynamic equilibrium occurs in a closed system. At dynamic equilibrium, the graph levels off as the rate of forward reaction = rate of reverse reaction HOMOGENEOUS EQUILIBRIUM: Reactants and products are in the same phase, all gaseous etc;

H2(g) + N2(g) 2NH3(g) HETEROGENEOUS EQUILIBRIUM: Reactants and products are in more than one phase;

3Fe(s) + 4H2O(l) Fe3O4(s) + 4H2(g)

CHEMISTRY AS NOTES

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