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Matter And Radiation Notes

This is a sample of our (approximately) 4 page long Matter And Radiation notes, which we sell as part of the Physics AS Level Notes collection, a A package written at Manchester High School For Girls Sixth Form in 2013 that contains (approximately) 36 pages of notes across 13 different documents.

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Unit 1: 1 Matter and Radiation

INSIDE THE ATOM

-Rutherford's alpha-particle scattering experiment discovered a nucleus of protons and neutrons, orbited by electrons. Proton Number (Z)

A Z

X

Number of protons in the nucleus

Nucleon Number (A)

Number of nucleons in the nucleus (protons and neutrons)

ISOTOPES - same number of protons but different number of neutrons. RELATIVE ATOMIC MASS:

mass of atom one twelfth the mass of a 126C atom

CHARGE-TO-MASS RATIO (SPECIFIC CHARGE)/C kg-1:

total charge on particle(C) mass of particle (kg)

NB: the electron has the largest specific charge of any particle (due to very small mass).

FUNDAMENTAL FORCES Fundamental Force

Responsible for

Relative Strength

GRAVITATIONAL

Weight, gravitational attraction

10-38

ELECTROMAGNETIC

Friction, normal reaction, upthrust etc.

10-2

WEAK NUCLEAR

Radioactive decay

10-5

STRONG NUCLEAR

Holding nuclei together

1

Due to the gravitational force being so weak, it is considered to be negligible in particle Physics.

The role of the strong nuclear force

-The strong nuclear force overcomes the mutual electrostatic forces of repulsion between the protons in a nucleus as well as preventing the neutrons from decaying.
-The force varies with distance and only works on an extremely short range (attractive up to 3x10-15m and repulsive below 0.5x10-15m). These ranges explain why it holds the nucleons together in the nucleus but they do not collapse in on each other.

PHYSICS AS NOTES

1

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