Comprehensive Notes On Henry Viii's Foreign Policy (Including Historiography) Notes
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Ellie Lacey AS HISTORY - UNIT 2 REVISION NOTES HENRY'S FOREIGN POLICY - TIMELINE DATE 1512 1513
1514 1515 1516 1518 1519 1520 1521 1523
1525 1527 1528 1529
1533 1536 1537 1538 1538/9 1540 1542
Anglo-Spanish alliance v. France Maximilian joins Ferdinand, Henry and Papacy against France August: Battle of the Spurs Sept.: Flodden Sept.: Tournai captured Peace w/ France Accession of Francis I Princess Mary born Treaty of London - centre of Wolsey's peacemaking Charles V elected HRE May: Charles V in England June: FOCOG July: Henry meets Charles at Calais Wolsey visits Charles V at Bruges - agree for joint invasion of France English army lands in Calais under Suffolk Siege of Boulogne abandoned in order to attack Paris. Attack fails (Winter time) Feb.: Pavia - Francis I captured Aug.: Peace w/ France April: Alliance w/ France against Charles - Treaty Eng/Fran declare war on Charles V TURNING POINT: July: Legatine Court presiding over GM adjourned Aug.: Treaty of Cambrai - FrancoSpanish peace sealed Oct.: Wolsey dismissed Diplomatic links w/ Lutheran princes Jan.: C of A dies May: Anne Boleyn executed Prince Edward born Papal bull of deprivation deposing Henry VIII Purge of White Rose Party carried out Jan.: Anne of Cleves marriage Declares war on Scot. Nov.: Battle of Solway Moss - Eng. defeats Scot.
1544 1546 1547
Dec.: James V of Scot. dies. Mary left as heir Eng. invades southern Scot. Sept.: Boulogne taken by Eng. army Peace between Eng. & France at Ardres Henry VIII dies
KEY PLAYERS IN SIXTEENTH-CENTURY EUROPE: FRANCE
- Under Francis I (Valois) (1515).
- Largest kingdom in Europe - 460,000 square km.
- Population of 16 mill.
- Acquisition of Brittany and Burgundy around this time.
- Inherited conflict in Italy - Francis determined to uphold French honour and glory. Set up for clash with Spain. SPAIN
- Charles of Habsburg became leader 1516.
- Charles = son of Philip the Fair and Joanna; Isabella and Ferdinand's grandson.
- Spain = v. diverse.
- 6.8 mill. people.
- Main towns = Madrid, Toledo and Salamanca.
- Devoutly Catholic (e.g. war against Moors of Granada - won back Iberian peninsula). HRE
Collection of 400 semi-autonomous states (where Germany is now). Power decentralised, although ruled by one Emporer. Borders = ambiguous. Population of 16 mill. HRE brought great prestige, though not much power. Habsburgs made the elected post effectively hereditary. Charles V became leader in 1519. Vast empire caused problems for Charles: had to defeat the Infidel Turk in the Mediterranean, wage war in Italy, and repel Protestant Ref. in Europe.
- Pope's duty to defend Catholic interests in Europe.
- Successive Popes had called Catholic crusades against Ottoman Empire (Muslim).
- Pope also held great political power, as major landowner in central Italy.
- Papal court rivalled that of any Prince in Europe.
- Julius II (1503 - 13) known as 'warrior pope' - desire for conquest of further territories.
Ongoing Habsburg-Valois conflict in Italy threatened Papal interests. Pope had to choose his allies carefully. 1527: Charles' army sacked Rome and kept Clement VII prisoner. Key obstacle for Henry over GM.
CAN HENRY'S SUCCESS?
1. FRENCH CAMPAIGNS 1511-1514. (INC. WAR AGAINST FRANCE 1512-13) How successful?
- Not very successful
- England v. weak, despite great ambitions.
- Had to rely on other powers for support.
- Invasion failed.
- Naval defeat at Brest in 1512. Details:
- Henry's father's ministers, e.g. Bishop Fox, Archbishop Warham, advised against a war.
- Frustrating Anglo-French Treaty 1510.
- Pope put himself at head of Holy League. Eng, Spain, Venice, HRE, Papal states against France. Henry could get money from Parliament by declaring this a papal war.
- 12,000 troops sent to Bayonne under Marquis of Dorset.
- Plan for Anglo-Spanish invasion to take Aquitane.
- Ferdinand used English troops as a diversion. They were forced to wait for days, as drunkenness and dysentery overtook their camp.
- Furthered by naval defeat.
2. ANGLO-FRENCH TREATY, 1514. How successful?
- Forced peace-making.
- Result of HRE and Spain's peace-making with France (behind Henry's back), new Pope (Leo X) preference of peace over war, and Henry's lack of funds.
- Most sensible course of action. Brought some benefits, but did not fulfil Henry's aims. Details:
- Gave England possession of Tournai.
- Louis XII promised to pay arrears of English pension of 1490s.
- Henry proposed Anglo-French attack on Spain - showing his anger with Ferdinand.
- This invasion was never fulfilled.
- Treaty sealed with Henry's sister (Mary)'s marriage to Louis.
3. BATTLE OF THE SPURS, 1513. How successful?
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