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Henry's Foreign Policy What Did He Do Notes

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History Revision Notes Unit 1 A7. FOREIGN POLICY. Henry's foreign policy: What did he do?
Key: Highlighted = examples to illustrate: i. Henry developing diplomacy ii. Henry's successful diplomacy iii. Henry's changing democracy Henry's position was far more defensive than that of his predecessors due to his usurpation of Richard III, which meant that he would have to constantly be on guard for invasion and needed the support of foreign powers in order to secure his throne. Vergil said that Henry was "more inclined to peace than war". This, along with the situation in Europe and Henry's vulnerable position meant that he aimed to follow a programme of non-intervention on the continent.

i. Developing Diplomacy 1485-92.

ACTION EXPLANATION Consolidating support Maintain good relations with Henry had received French support in France the expedition leading to Bosworth. He took this opportunity to maintain good relations with France in order to consolidate his throne, and negotiated a one-year truce with France (extended to January 1489). Make peace with Scotland

The Scots had been more supportive of Henry than Richard at Bosworth, but he feared that the old enmity could return once he was king. In July 1486, he persuaded James III to agree to a three-year truce, and after James' death, kept contacts in the Scottish court. Maintain good relations with Like France, Brittany offered Henry Brittany hospitality during his years in exile. He took advantage of this by negotiating a commercial treaty in July 1486. Gain the support of the HRE This was a large and powerful country

i. Developing Diplomacy 1485-92 (cont.)

so would be extremely dangerous if it backed any pretenders to Henry's throne. For this reason, Henry renewed Edward IV's treaty with Maximilian, the HRE, for one year. Problems caused by the Simnel rising Monitor neighbours carefully The Lambert Simnel rising caused Henry to get more involved in foreign affairs that he would have intended. Simnel received support from Ireland and Burgundy. Irish support was common for English pretenders, but Burgundy was not, and 2000 mercenaries were supplied by Margaret of Burgundy to support Simnel (as she was the sister of RIII). This showed Henry how vulnerable he was, and how carefully he would have to monitor his neighbours. Brittany Maintain a diplomatic stance The French king at the time (Charles over Brittany & France VIII) was a minor, and the regent (his sister, Anne of Beaujeau) was determined to marry him to their heir to the duchy of Brittany, Anne. This would be the last step in France's expansionist policy. Maximilian, the HRE, sent 1500 men to help defend Brittany, and Ferdinand of Aragon

1000. Francis of Brittany then asked Henry for help, which put him in a dilemma. After explaining to a papal ambassador that on the one hand he could not allow France to take over Brittany due to their hospitality during his exile and the problems it would cause for England's security, but on the other hand, he owed allegiance to France after their financial assistance in 1985 and their truce, Henry decided to send several hundred volunteers under Lord Scales to help the Bretons. He then acted as a mediator between the two courts. When Brittany refused to listen, Henry renewed the treaty with France and disowned Lord Scales. Deter war with France In 1488, at the Battle of St Aubin du Cormier, the Bretons were defeated, and the Treaty of Sablé was signed.

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