A-Level Notes > Stratford Upon Avon Grammar School For Girls A-Level Notes > AQA History AS - 1B: Britain, 1483-1529 Notes

Henry Vii's Foreign Policy Notes

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Henry Vii's Foreign Policy Revision

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Henry VII's Foreign Policy

!

Main threats
! France -­‐ they had supported Henry in overthrowing Richard III
‣ Henry was in debt to them and aware that they could do the same thing again
and support another claimant to the throne
‣ France supported Warbeck
Ireland -­‐ supported
Simnel
!
! Scotland -­‐ supported Warbeck and had a war with the English
! Spain -­‐ Warbeck had visited the Holy Roman Emperor and gained his support
! Burgundy -­‐ Margaret of Burgundy supported many rebels

!

Main aims
! Peace -­‐ stopping usurpers
‣ This is difficult for Henry as he himself is a usurper
Trade -­‐ especially the Low
Countries (cloth trade)
!
! Alliances -­‐ marry children off
‣ Henry currently has no dynastic links
‣ This is difficult at the start of his reign -­‐ has no children
Money -­‐ needed for war
!
‣ Yet higher taxes cause rebellions
‣ Despite this, Henry needs at least one successful expedition as this unites
people under a king


!

! Although Henry was in debt to the French, had no dynastic links or alliances and at the
start of the reign had no children, he did have some advantages
‣ Only France had the power to launch a serious invasion of the country
‣ Scotland had recently been invaded by Richard so was no real threat
‣ There was serious Yorkist support in Ireland but the Irish were not good fighters
‣ Intended marriage to Elizabeth of York had the support of many leading
Yorkists
‣ Other strengths
- Princes had died in the Tower
- Warwick was in the Tower
- John de la Pole had sworn loyalty


Low Countries
! Maximilian von Habsburg married the daughter of Charles the Bold
‣ Acquired the area in 1477
‣ Became Holy Roman Emperor in 1493


!

! 1489 -­‐ Henry allied himself with Maximilian
‣ But they failed in their attempt to stop the French takeover of Brittany
! After this, Maximilian recognised Warbeck as Richard IV and became involved with
Margaret of Burgundy


!

! Late 1493 -­‐ proclamation forbad English merchants from trading in the Low Countries
! May 1494 -­‐ Maximilian set up a counter-­‐embargo
‣ Led to a full blown trade war
! Henry, however, is different -­‐ does not want a war, is diplomatic and is merely enforcing
his will


!

! 1496 -­‐ Intercursus Magnus
‣ Trade treaty -­‐ English merchants are to trade with the Low Countries paying
the normal customs dues
‣ Clauses on not harbouring others' rebels
- Henry used diplomacy effectively to reduce Warbeck's support -­‐ didn't
just declare war


!

! Maximilian's son, Philip the Fair, ruled the Low Countries after his father's elevation in
1493
‣ Imposed new import duty on cloth
‣ English trade decreased by 1498


!

! 1499 -­‐ the trade treaty was finally signed
‣ Warbeck was in the Tower and soon executed

!

Consequences:
! Serious disruption to England's trade with the Low Countries
‣ Cost the country
! He did, however, want trade to increase money
‣ Overall, he increases trade over his reign
Henry is the first king to sacrifice England's trading interests in pursuit of his own
!
political and diplomatic agenda

!

Ireland
! Strong Yorkist support -­‐ encourages pretenders
! Most powerful lord was the Earl of Kildare
‣ 1486 -­‐ refused to travel to London to advise Henry on the Irish situation
‣ 1487 -­‐ crowned Simnel in Dublin Cathedral
- Was promised that he would be lord lieutenant


!
!

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