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Topic 8 Opposition Notes

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The Emergence of a Great Power? Spain 1492-1556 Section three: Charles I: Challenge and continuity 1516-29 Topic Two- The Growth and extent of opposition

Germania Revolt 1519-21

The Germania were a Christian brotherhood originally formed to protect the coast of Valencia from Muslim pirates Was an urban revolt in Valencia Initially led by Juan Llorenc - a local weaver who wanted Valencia to become a separate republic modelled on Venice. Set up a committee of 13 Later leader was Vicente Peris - who seized control rom Llorec who also wanted to create an independent Republic Causes:
 A promised Cortes in Valencia not held because of the plague
 Nobles left city because of plague - ordinary subjects suffered more
 Members of the Germania were finding it difficult to get food as a consequence f the plague
 Germania resentful towards the Moriscos and thought that the inquisition was too lenient with them
 An order to guilds to prepare for raids by the Turks provided the residents with weapons Nature:
 Local priests and the poo began attacking landlords and government officials
 Governor of Valencia was forced to leave city, but he returned with an army but was defeated
 Under Peris' leadership nobles were attacked
 forcible conversions of Moriscos
 Peris later defeated and executed in 1522 Outcome:
 Extreme violence
 Alarmed Nobility
 Resistance continued until 1524
 Rebels were put to death
 Authority of nobles were strengthened Why did it fail?
 Powerless involved
 Concentrated in one place - easily stamped out
 Arose because Charles was an inexperienced leader but he was quick t learn and respond
 Disagreement amongst rebels
 The forces of the crown, Nobility and church was too strong for the rebels

McDonald believes that the Germania revolt was due to political factors. A clash of the crown and the subjects. Kilsby on the Germania Revolt and Comuneros Revolt = sees the suppression of the revolts shows Charles was a strong, effective and potentially 'absolute' ruler

Kamen and Elliott agree that the cause of Germania was about the social division. There was a rivalry between Aragon and Castile as Charles had spent more time in Aragon than Castile McDonald believes that the Germania revolt less important compared to Comuneros Revolt.

Comuneros Revolt 1520-21

Group of rebels composed mostly of townspeople but also some Clergy and nobles Began in towns in North of Castile Anger at Charles' demands from the Cortes to support the bid for the Crown of the HRE Overlapped with Germania More serious Revolts broke out in different places Comunros defeated at the Battle of Villalar in 1521 Kilsby quotes a contemporary writer

Causes: saying 'amongst Spaniards, no
 Charles a Foreigner foreigner is accounted of
 Spoke no Castilian importance'
 Few Spanish advisors
 Many officials were foreign
 Senior positions in government given to Burgundians
 Put HRE first
 Nobility rivalry between families- Riberas v Ayalas (faction rivelry - Riberes family lost influence after Ferdinand's death but gained it again when the other family were discredited for their support of Cisneros)
 Concerns over future of wool trade which might be diverted to the HRE and consequently loss of earnings for Spain
 Money being asked from Cotes to fund Charles election to be HRE - bribes to make people vote
 Absentee monarch
 Serious challenge to Charles as rightful heir to Castile cam efrom Cortes of Castile 1518 led by Juan de Zumel
 Religious causes Jews used as scapegoats Cardinal Cisneros replaced by 17 year old as Archbishop of Toledo Friars did not support their Cortes granting money to king Spark to all these factors was lit by the involvement of two rival noble factions, the Riberes and Ayalas. Ayalas supported Padilla and his opposition to the crown and the Riberes supported Charles and his Chief Minister, Chievres. The rebellion begun in Toledo were Padilla set up a government in the name of the King, the Queen and the Comunidad (People of Toledo)

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