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Martin Luther And The German Reformation Notes

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Martin Luther and the German Reformation Luther's protest 95 Theses

• timing was not accidental - at the end of October was when people bought the most indulgences Luther's ideas

• influenced by humanist ideas

• sola scriptura (words of the Scriptures were only guide)

• sola fide (faith alone saves) o made much of the Church's teaching on salvation irrelevant Luther's writings

• Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation - appeal to Charles V and rulers of Germany to reform the Church, launched at attack on abuses of the Church and dismissed authority of the pope

• The Babylonish Captivity of the Church - most revolutionary of three writings, said that the sacraments were a fraud

• The Freedom of a Christian - sola fide The outcome of Luther's protest

• The Church and some secular authorities were concerned over the financial results

• Theologians feared the religious implications

• ordinary people were delgihted

• Pope Leo ordered Luther to Rome but he refused

• decided that issues should be settled in Germany The meeting at Augsburg, 1518

• Cajetan represented the pope

• he was to get Luther to admit he was wrong

• his insistance pushed Luther further away The Leipzig Debate, 1519

• public debate on Luther's teaching

• Duke George, who opposed Luther, was present

• Luther's opponent was John Eck who was a highly respected Dominican Friar

• Luther condemned himself by stating all his beliefs

• Church had to excommunicate him

• Bull of Excommunication was produced against Luther and it condemned 41 of his views The Diet of Worms, 1521

• Charles V was elected Holy Roman Emperor and he decided to give Luther a hearing

• by the Edict of Worms, Luther was declared an outlaw

• as Luther was returning to Wittenburg, he was 'kidnapped' by men under the instruction of Frederick the Wise

• Luther was taken to a castle where he continued his writings The growth of Lutheranism Support of German Princes

• strong tradition of dislike for Italian pope, which encouraged them to support Luther

• removal of Church authority could increase their power

• could seize Church land

• once it was clear that Luther was on the side of order, more princes were ready to accept Lutheranism

• provided organisation, discipline and military protection for the new Church

• Frederick the Wise protected Luther at critical moments o wanted to give Luther a fair hearing and a chance to explain himself o bitter rivalry with his brother, Duke George, who opposed Luther o motivated by a sense of nationalism

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