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The Papacy And Reform Notes

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The Papacy and Reform The Revival of papal authority Renaissance Popes
- During 16 Century, papacy was the target of considerable criticism by Erasmus and Luther
- Problem were that Papacy lived in Luxury and between 1492-1503, 86 new cardinals were appointed who were young and had little interest in the Church and duties required.
 Alexander VI (1492-1503)

• Accused of bribing cardinals to vote for him

• Had 8 children by 3 different women

• Accused of Nepotism (Promoting one's own family to position within the Church)

• Openly kept a 20-year-old mistress while being Pope

• Historian Mullett said the family was guilty of incest and expert prisoners (Daughter Lucrezia poised husband)

• Not a holy figure

• Made a excellent ruler of papal states o Given the political problems trying to managed the papal states independency by foreign powers required a cunning man rather than a politically innocent figure

During his Pontificate he: Managed to keep papal independent fro foreign powers Waged successful campaigns against cities in Romagna with help of son Cesare
 Julius II, 'Warrior Pope' (1503-1513)

• According to Shaw he was a 'self-motivated man of action'

• He put himself at the head of his troops

• In an anonymous Pamphlet probably written by Erasmus called 'Julius Exclusus', Pope was portrayed as having a shouting match with St Peter, who refuses to let him into heaven with his armour, pride and anger.

• If he hadn't have been pope, he'd have made an excellent ruler

• Finally gave Popes control of central Italy

• Introduced administrative and financial changes in the running of the papal government

• Called a Lateran council to discuss reforms in the Church

• Employed Michelangelo to decorate The Sistine Chapel

• Began the building of the New St Peters Basilica in Rome which his successors were committed to build a massive church - took 120 years to complete.
 Leo X (1513-1521)

• Educated by Humanists

• loved lavish displays

• Was a Diplomat rather than Warrior

• Was Pope at the time of the start of Reformation

• Lateran council continued to meet until 1517 and made some useful reforms Impact of Pope Paul III (1534-1549)

• Willing to support attempts to reach a reconciliation with the Lutherans

• Demand for compromise was supported by Charles, who saw it as a way to reunite with German Church and strengthen his political position with France and Turks

• Colloquy at Regensburg 1542 = Attempt to find compromise between Catholic and Protestants. Agreed was reached to find in favour of Luther's main doctrine of Faith rather than the Catholic View.

• This success evaporated because there was no discussion of real presence and authority of Pope. Both Luther and Paul refused to agree to anything that gave away any

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