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Essay Plan 'political Intrigue Explains Why Hitler Was Able To Become Chancellor In 1933.' How Far Do You Agree Notes

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Essay plan ­ 'Political intrigue explains why Hitler was able to become Chancellor in

1933.' How far do you agree with this opinion?
Political intrigue:

• Ian Kershaw:

• Hitler's appointment as Chancellor not inevitable until the very last moment.
Only appointed because of elite support + political miscalculations.

• Von Papen persuaded Hindenburg (who was v.opposed to appointing Hitler
Chancellor over SA violence + personal dislike) to appoint Hitler Chancellor
with Papen VC + cabinet w/traditional conservatives (only 3 Nazis in Cabinet
inc. Hitler) as a way to control Hitler + harness his popularity to support an
authoritarian GVT.

• Important factor with the breakdown of parliamentary democracy + the rise of
Presidential GVT after 1930 + Bruning GVT, meant political deals often more
important than the Reichstag, which had been undermined.

• Role of Hitler in negotiations important too. Insisted upon Chancellor role due to
confidence that electoral arithmetic would eventually force Hindenburg's hand to
appoint Hitler. But took nerve + clever negotiation + foresight to not concede +
cut a deal sooner. Elite support:

• Not just political persuasion from Von Papen that convinced Hindenburg, but
persuasion from elites in terms of army + businessmen too, who both advocated
Hitler as the alternative (in their minds) of a communist coup, or civil war, was
worse than stability.

• Business ­ Hjalmar Schacht, Gustav Krupp + other leading industrialists
representing IG Farben + other big companies put pressure on Hindenburg to
appoint Hitler, due to the fear of a communist takeover as the only other
alternative.

• Army ­ Persuaded Hindenburg that Hitler needed to be Chancellor as alternative
of a civil war between the SA + communists could not be contained by the army. Popular support:

• Popular + electoral support a key factor, necessary but not sufficient alone.

• July 1932 elections have Nazis 37.3% of vote + 230 seats, making them the
largest party in the Reichstag. Nov 1932 elections saw 4% fall + lost 34 seats,
but remained the largest party.

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