Essay Plan 'Political Intrigue Explains Why Hitler Was Able To Become Chancellor In 1933.' How Far Do You Agree Notes

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Essay plan 'Political intrigue explains why Hitler was able to become Chancellor in

1933.' How far do you agree with this opinion?
Political intrigue:

* Ian Kershaw:

* Hitler's appointment as Chancellor not inevitable until the very last moment. Only appointed because of elite support + political miscalculations.

* Von Papen persuaded Hindenburg (who was v.opposed to appointing Hitler Chancellor over SA violence + personal dislike) to appoint Hitler Chancellor with Papen VC + cabinet w/traditional conservatives (only 3 Nazis in Cabinet inc. Hitler) as a way to control Hitler + harness his popularity to support an authoritarian GVT.

* Important factor with the breakdown of parliamentary democracy + the rise of Presidential GVT after 1930 + Bruning GVT, meant political deals often more important than the Reichstag, which had been undermined.

* Role of Hitler in negotiations important too. Insisted upon Chancellor role due to confidence that electoral arithmetic would eventually force Hindenburg's hand to appoint Hitler. But took nerve + clever negotiation + foresight to not concede +
cut a deal sooner. Elite support:

* Not just political persuasion from Von Papen that convinced Hindenburg, but persuasion from elites in terms of army + businessmen too, who both advocated Hitler as the alternative (in their minds) of a communist coup, or civil war, was worse than stability.

* Business Hjalmar Schacht, Gustav Krupp + other leading industrialists representing IG Farben + other big companies put pressure on Hindenburg to appoint Hitler, due to the fear of a communist takeover as the only other alternative.

* Army Persuaded Hindenburg that Hitler needed to be Chancellor as alternative of a civil war between the SA + communists could not be contained by the army. Popular support:

* Popular + electoral support a key factor, necessary but not sufficient alone.

* July 1932 elections have Nazis 37.3% of vote + 230 seats, making them the largest party in the Reichstag. Nov 1932 elections saw 4% fall + lost 34 seats, but remained the largest party.

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