This is an extract of our Essay Plan 'Political Intrigue Explains Why Hitler Was Able To Become Chancellor In 1933.' How Far Do You Agree document, which we sell as part of our Edexcel A-Level History; Kaiser to Fuhrer; Germany 1900-45 Notes collection written by the top tier of University Of Oxford students.
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Essay plan 'Political intrigue explains why Hitler was able to become Chancellor in
1933.' How far do you agree with this opinion?
* Ian Kershaw:
* Hitler's appointment as Chancellor not inevitable until the very last moment. Only appointed because of elite support + political miscalculations.
* Von Papen persuaded Hindenburg (who was v.opposed to appointing Hitler Chancellor over SA violence + personal dislike) to appoint Hitler Chancellor with Papen VC + cabinet w/traditional conservatives (only 3 Nazis in Cabinet inc. Hitler) as a way to control Hitler + harness his popularity to support an authoritarian GVT.
* Important factor with the breakdown of parliamentary democracy + the rise of Presidential GVT after 1930 + Bruning GVT, meant political deals often more important than the Reichstag, which had been undermined.
* Role of Hitler in negotiations important too. Insisted upon Chancellor role due to confidence that electoral arithmetic would eventually force Hindenburg's hand to appoint Hitler. But took nerve + clever negotiation + foresight to not concede +
cut a deal sooner. Elite support:
* Not just political persuasion from Von Papen that convinced Hindenburg, but persuasion from elites in terms of army + businessmen too, who both advocated Hitler as the alternative (in their minds) of a communist coup, or civil war, was worse than stability.
* Business Hjalmar Schacht, Gustav Krupp + other leading industrialists representing IG Farben + other big companies put pressure on Hindenburg to appoint Hitler, due to the fear of a communist takeover as the only other alternative.
* Army Persuaded Hindenburg that Hitler needed to be Chancellor as alternative of a civil war between the SA + communists could not be contained by the army. Popular support:
* Popular + electoral support a key factor, necessary but not sufficient alone.
* July 1932 elections have Nazis 37.3% of vote + 230 seats, making them the largest party in the Reichstag. Nov 1932 elections saw 4% fall + lost 34 seats, but remained the largest party.
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