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Health Notes

This is a sample of our (approximately) 8 page long Health notes, which we sell as part of the Geography AS Notes collection, a A package written at Withington Girls' School in 2013 that contains (approximately) 61 pages of notes across 4 different documents.

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HEALTH Global patterns of health The highest crude death rates are often found in LEDCs, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. However some of the lowest mortality rates are also found in lesser developed countries, such as Mexico. Infant mortality is falling across the world, and areas with high rates of infant mortality tend to have high rates of overall mortality. HIV/Aids have a major impact on mortality all over the globe, with around 40 million people living with the disease worldwide. 25 million of them are in sub-Saharan Africa. Infant mortality - the number of deaths of children under the age of one year, per 1000 live births per year Morbidity - prevalence of illness and the reporting of disease Mortality - the death of people, measured using death rate, infant mortality and attack rate

Global patterns of morbidity Influenza Viral infection that attacks the upper respiratory tract. Usually lasts around a week, and is very easily spread through droplets that are breathed in Attacks - very young and very old, the infection may lead to severe complications, pneumonia and death (between 250,000 - 500,000 deaths per year) Most serious case was the Spanish flu which killed at least 40 million people in 1918, however now there are treatments and vaccinations available

An infectious disease HIV/Aids Human immunodeficiency virus which causes the illness aids. HIV is a slow retrovirus which means that it can take years for any symptoms to show, in many cases, the victim has already developed aids before they are aware that they have HIV Aids are the acquired immune deficiency syndrome which destroys white blood cells and causes a breakdown of the immune system. This means that peoples' bodies become extremely weak and incapable of fighting against the tamest of illnesses Spread through - bodily fluids, contaminated needles, contaminated blood transfusions and from mother to child during pregnancy

Sub-Saharan Africa

24.7 million people living with HIV/Aids in 2006

2.1 million Aids deaths in 2005

2.8 million new infections in 2005 alone

Zambia

770,000 people affected - 19% of the population

630,000 cases leads to 590,000 deaths

Life expectancy reduced to 34 years old from 58 years old

Males fall ill = loss of man power = loss of productivity = labour substitution and children often have to take their place = change in the agricultural system (farm income falls + medical costs rise = financial pressures)

Effects Only one in ten sufferers knows that they have the disease in the early stages of the infection and therefore the majority of sufferers do not receive treatment until the disease has spread and developed. Social and economic

Prejudice in their employment and social life due to the stigma that is attached to the disease. Children are often ostracised if their parents have the disease in parts of Africa

Loss of income earning opportunities, particularly in countries that rely on farming

Costs of medical care and medicine

Children forced to leave school to work - lack of education for future

Lack of farming productivity has caused food shortages and put a strain on local resources

Management Vaccine - although there is no vaccination to prevent the disease, research is ongoing Drugs - drugs are available but very expensive and in LEDCs, the majority of the infected population are not able to afford the medication

AZT - $10,000 a year per individual in 2000

Generic drugs such as Nevirapine - $300

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