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Population Change Notes

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POPULATION CHANGE The growth of world population 1999 - World's population reached 6 billion people Birth rate - measure of an area's fertility, expressed as the number of live births per 1,000 people in one year Death rate - the number of deaths per 1,000 people in one year Life expectancy - the average number of years from birth that a person is expected to live Longevity - the increase in life expectancy over a period of time, people living longer creates an older population Natural change - the change in size of a population caused by the interrelationship between birth and death rates

Causes of population growth Health - improved medical staff and equipment helps control disease, increased birth control measures, reduced infant mortality rates, healthier diet and malnutrition, sexual health and sanitation Education - more females in education and health education, increased literacy rates Social provision - more care for the elderly, availability of technology for health campaigns, clean water supply Cultural factors - religious attitudes to birth control, status gain from having children and the role of women in society Political - strength of the economy, impact of war and access to healthcare or contraception Environmental - frequency of natural hazards or environmental conditions that breed particular diseases

Changes in population characteristics Fertility Fertility exceeds both mortality and migration and is therefore the main determinant of population growth

Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest fertility rate due to religious opposition to contraception. Furthermore, a study concluded that a woman must have 8 or 9 children to be 95% certain of a surviving adult son

Tradition often demands high rates of reproduction, for example Italian tradition to have very large families

Education - female literacy rate is the key to lower fertility rates. If women are more educated, they are more aware of birth control and employment opportunities. In Rwanda, only 10% of women have access to family planning, compared to 70% in Brazil Religion - in many Muslim and Catholic countries, people do not believe in contraception as they think it goes against their nature Economic - in many countries, children are viewed as an asset to work, for example in Zambia, and therefore children do not receive adequate education or care

Demographic transition model Shows how the population of a country changes over time, illustrating changes in birth and death rates as countries pass through the five stages of development Stage 1 - fluctuation of high birth rate and high death rate, when population growth is small Stage 2 - early expanding with high birth rate and falling death rate, as population begins to expand rapidly Stage 3 - late expanding, period of falling birth rate and falling death rate as population growth begins to slow down Stage 4 - low fluctuating, period of low birth rate and low death rate fluctuations, causing population decline Stage 5 - period of decline when death rate exceeds the birth rate causing the population to decrease DTM advantages

It is universal in concept and therefore it can be applied to any country in the world

It provides a starting point for the study of demographic change over time

The timescales are flexible

It is easy to understand and visually clear

It enables comparisons between demographic changes between countries

DTM disadvantages

The original model did not include the fifth stage

It is Eurocentric and assumes that all countries will fit the European sequence of socioeconomic changes

It does not include the role of governments

It does not include the relative significant impact of migration

Migration Migration is the change of residence for an individual or group of people, either temporarily or permanently

Net migration- the difference between the numbers of in-migrants and out-migrants in an area. When in-migrants exceed out-migrants, there is a net migrational gain Forced migration - when citizens are forced out of their country of origin, mainly due to prejudice or war - Rwanda genocide when the Hutu's were forced out of the country by the Tutsi's

How has migration changed?
Increases in:

Illegal migration as a response to legal restrictions

Asylum seekers

Migration between MEDCs - between countries in the EU

Short term migration as countries place limits on work permits

Decreases in:

Lifelong migration - host countries offer fewer opportunities for migrants as there is less availability of low skilled jobs

Many migrants want to return home at some point

Refugee - someone who is unable or unwilling to return home for fear of persecution, based on reasons of race, religion or ethnicity Asylum seeker - formal application by a refugee to become a citizen of their destination country in order to reside there legally

Population structure The proportion of males and females in an area, usually in the form of age distributions Dependency ration = population (0-19) + population (60+) / population (20-59) Population structure in the UK

Significant bulge in the 30s age group - birth rate high in the 1960s due to the "swinging 60s" and the 'baby boom' following WWII

Highly developed medical care means there is a lot of elderly 60+

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