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Us Race And Ethnic Politics Notes

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RACE AND ETHNIC POLITICS The USA is seen as a 'melting pot' of races, culture, languages and religion

Minority representation The end of the civil war (1861 - 1865) brought emancipation for the slaves and a slow march towards equality in politics, in education and in employment 1999 - 72% white, 12% black, 11% Hispanic Estimated 2025 - 60% white, 13% black, 18% Hispanic

The Civil Rights Movement The Civil Rights Movement began in the 1950s; almost a century after the Civil Warsegregation was extreme in education, housing, employment, leisure activities (restaurants and cinemas) and on public transport - particularly in the South Plessey vs. Ferguson - 1892 case helped cement the legal foundation for the doctrine of 'separate but equal', the idea that segregation based on classifications was legal as long as facilities were of equal quality

World War II played a large part in reducing segregation due to moves to outlaw discrimination in the defence industries in 1941

Jim Crow laws - mandated racial segregation in education, employment, marriage, military and housing mainly in the Southern States Brown v Board of Education - 1954 decision was the catalyst for the movement - overturned the 'separate but equal' doctrine with the conclusion that 'separate educational facilities are inherently unequal' - overturned Plessey v Ferguson Rosa Parks - in December 1955, a black woman was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a bus in Montgomery for a white person - this led to a larger degree of civil disobedience by the black community, led largely by Martin Luther King and his Southern Christian Leadership Freedom Riders - in May 1961, the Congress of Racial Inequality sent freedom riders of both races across the southern states and elsewhere to challenge the segregated seating arrangements on state transport links (over 4 months - 70,000 people participated) March for Jobs and Freedom in 1963 - Martin Luther King delivered his famous 'I have a dream' speech NAACP - National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People - pressure group promoting the ideas and values of black citizens in America Following the assassination of John F Kennedy, Lyndon Johnson passed the Civil Rights Act in 1964 and the Voting Rights Act in 1965 Civil rights - the rights of citizens to political and social freedom and equality

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