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Biological Interventions Notes

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Biological interventions Model for addiction:

Initiation is due to genetic vulnerability or predisposition which is triggered by environmental stressor Maintenance is via the dopamine receptors and activities of brain's reward system Relapse is due to physiological cravings and need to avoid physical withdrawal symptoms

Stages of change model:

Developed by Prochaska and DiClemente 1983 o Pre contemplation - not thinking about quitting o Contemplation - beginning to think about quitting o Preparation - thinking about a date to stop addiction, seeing NHS free advisor o Action - attempting to quit o Maintenance - maintaining quitting DiClemente et al 1991 found that if an addict had made it up to preparation stage, they were more likely to have made an attempt to quit smoking at one and six month follow ups Can apply to all three interventions Suggests we need to help people get to preparation stage e.g. Stoptober gave people a chance to stop smoking or Sobertober

Types of intervention:

Based on the premise that addiction is a disease, so addictions are treated using medication - medication usually aims to take the place of the addiction - medication treatments usually treat withdrawal symptoms of addiction and not the cause - addict usually has to stay in a clinic while they take medication For smoking: o NRT - gum, patches, spray o Bupropion - antidepressant drug o Varanecline - drug which increases dopamine All these drugs have been shown to be more effective than a placebo in clinical trials

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