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Amino Acid Biosynthesis Notes

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Amino Acid Biosynthesis Revision

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Amino Acid Breakdown: Essential amino acids = must be in diet. Nonessential amino acids = made by humans, obtained from 4 common intermediates:

• Pyruvate

• α-ketoglutarate

• Oxaloacetate

• 3-phosphoglycerate (component in glycolysis) Process involves main and side chain transamination (glutamate  α-ketoglutarate).

The Glutamate Family: Glutamate  Proline 4 steps involved. Glutamate  Glutamate-5-phosphate (intermediate)  Glutamate-5semialdehyde  Δ'-Pyrroline-5-carboxylate  Proline Glutamate  Ornithine 3 steps involved. First 2 steps same as proline formation. Glutamate  Glutamate-5-phosphate  Glutamate-5-semialdehyde  Ornithine

Glutamate  Arginine 5 steps, then urea cycle. Glutamate  N-acetylglutamate  N-acetylglutamate-5phosphate  N-acetylglutamate-5-semialdehyde  N-acetylornithine  Ornithine 
Urea cycle  Arginine So ornithine can be made using 2 different methods.

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