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Small Molecule Nmr Notes

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Small Molecule NMR: Small molecule NMR provides the following information:

• Nature and number of environments in which atomic nuclei are present.

• Chemical shifts, splitting patterns, coupling constants and 2D correlation experiments allow deductions about the identity of atoms neighbouring each environment.

• Areas under the peaks for the different environments (integration) indicates the relative numbers of protons present in each type of environment. Information available from standard 1-dimensional 1H NMR spectra:

• Chemical shifts

• Integration

• Multiplicity (splitting)

• Coupling constants

Chemical Shift: Hydrogen nuclei in different environments within a molecule experience slightly different local magnetic fields depending on how effectively the surrounding electron density 'shields' them from the external magnetic field. Effects typically vary by a small fraction of the applied field, expressed in ppm (δ) relative to TMS.

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