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Human Physiology Nerves Hormones And Homeostasis Notes

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HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY Nerves, Hormones and Homeostasis

6.5.1 State that the nervous system consists of the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nerves, and is composed of cells called neurons that can carry rapid electrical impulses (1)

6.5.2 of of






Draw and label a diagram the structure a motor neuron.(1)

A neuron has a cell body with extensions leading off it. Numerous dendrons and dendrites provide a large surface area for connecting with other neurons, and carry nerve impulses towards the cell body. A single long axon carries the nerve impulse away from the cell body. Most neurons have many companion cells called Schwann cells, which wrap their cell membrane around the axon many times in a spiral to form a thick insulating lipid layer called the myelin sheath. Nerve impulse can be passed from the axon of one neuron to the dendron of another at a synapse A nerve is a bundle of several thousand neuron axons

6.5.3 State that nerve impulses are conducted from receptors to the CNS by sensory neurons, within the CNS by relay neurons, and from the CNS to effectors by motor neurons.(1) Humans have three types of neuron : Sensory, Motor and Relay Neurons The reflect arc Nerve impulse conduction:
 Receptor to CNS : Sensory neurons have long axons and transmit nerve impulses from sensory receptors all over the body to the central nervous system.
 CNS to effectors : Motor neurons also have long axons and transmit nerve impulses from the central nervous system to effectors (muscles and glands) all over the body.
 Within CNS : Relay Neurons





There are various receptor around the body such as skin and the eye. Stimuli detected by the receptors and turned into an nerve impulse (chemical energy) Nerve impulses from sensory nerves are conducted to the central nervous system along sensory neurons. The impulse is sent to the relay neurons which conduct the impulse through the central nervous system (brain and spine). Motor neurons take the relayed nerve impulse to the effectors (often muscles) - produce response.

6.5.4 Define and action potential (depolarization and repolarization) (1). Membrane potentials:

resting potential

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