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Human Physiology Reproduction Notes
This is a sample of our (approximately) 6 page long Human Physiology Reproduction notes, which we sell as part of the Human Physiology Notes collection, a Grade 7 package written at The British International School, Ho Chi Minh in 2013 that contains (approximately) 32 pages of notes across 6 different documents.
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Human Physiology Reproduction Revision
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HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY Reproduction
6.6.1 Draw and label diagrams of the adult male and female reproductive systems.(1) Gametes are haploid sex cells that fuse through fertilization in sexual reproduction to form a diploid zygote
Male reproductive system:
Spermatogenesis in the testis
Maturation in the epididymis
Carried along the vas deferens
Ejaculation through the penis, via the urethra
Female reproductive system: Acidic to kill bacteria
Eggs develop in follicles (FSH trigger development of follicle)
6.6.2 Outline the role of hormones in the menstrual cycle, including FSH (follicle stimulating hormone), LH (luteinizing hormone), oestrogen and progesterone.(2). Cycle controlled by hormones (endocrine system) :
Brain: FSH and LH
Ovary : oestrogen and progesterone
FSH is secreted by the pituitary gland and its levels start to rise. This stimulates the follicle to develop and the follicle cells to secret estrogen.
Estrogen then causes the follicle cells to make more FSH receptors so that these can respond more strongly to the FSH.
This is positive feedback and causes the estrogen levels to increase and stimulate the thickening of the endometrium (uterus lining).
Estrogen levels increase to a peak and by doing so it stimulates LH secretion from the pituitary gland.
LH then increases to its peak and causes ovulation (release of egg from the follicle).
LH then stimulates the follicle cells to secrete less estrogen and more progesterone. Once ovulation has occurred, LH stimulated the follicle to develop into the corpus luteum.
The corpus luteum then starts to secrete high amounts of progesterone. This prepares the uterine lining for an embryo.
The high levels of estrogen and progesterone then start to inhibit FSH and LH.
If no embryo develops the levels of estrogen and progesterone fall. This stimulates menstruation (break down of the uterine lining). When the levels of these two hormones are low enough FSH and LH start to be secreted again.
10. FSH levels rise once again and a new menstrual cycle begins.
Pituitary Hormones (Follicle Stimulating hormone - FSH) :
Stimulates follicle development (oocytes)
Stimulates oestrogen secretion (by developing follicle)
Ovarian Hormones (Oestrogen) :
Stimulates endometrium development (lining of the uterus)
First half of the cycle : positive feedback to FSH through increased sensitivity of the follicle cells
Second half of cycle : (high oestrogen) Negative feedback on FSH and LH.
Pituitary Hormones (Luteinising Hormone - LH):
Matures oocyte and causes ovulation
Causes development of corpus luteum
Causes secretion of progesterone
Ovarian Hormones (Progesterone) :
Maintains the lining of the endometrium - thickens and prepares for implantation
Negative feedback on FSH and LH
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