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Greek Literature Of The 5th Century Notes

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GREEK CORE REVISON CONTENTS OF THIS DOCUMENT

May 2015

Structure of the paper.......................................................3 Text-reading.....................................................................3 Exam technique advice......................................................3 Synopses..........................................................................4

Alpha texts.............................................................................4 Hippolytus............................................................................................ 4 Thesmophoriazusae.............................................................................5 Herodotus Histories Book 1..................................................................7 Pindar Odes........................................................................................ 13 Ajax.................................................................................................... 15

Text-specific content notes..............................................18

Hippolytus............................................................................18 Gods and Hippolytus..........................................................................18 Values................................................................................................. 21 Extra notes......................................................................................... 22 Thesmophoriazusae..............................................................26 Scythian Archer's Greek.....................................................................26 Paratragedy........................................................................................ 26 Ajax.....................................................................................29 Hero cult............................................................................................. 29 Values................................................................................................. 31 Herodotus............................................................................34 Croesus............................................................................................... 34 Sources and Method...........................................................................39 Truth and history................................................................................41 Herodotean themes............................................................................43 Pindar..................................................................................46 Truth and deception............................................................................46 Unity................................................................................................... 47 Ideology.............................................................................................. 48 Individual odes................................................................................... 52

General notes on all texts................................................56

Values and morality..............................................................56 Tragedy............................................................................................... 56 Genre...................................................................................57 Comedy and Tragedy..........................................................................57 Gender.................................................................................59 Gender roles....................................................................................... 59 Gender in tragedy.............................................................................. 61 Women in comedy.............................................................................. 63 Gender in Herodotus..........................................................................64 Rhetoric and Deception.........................................................65 Contemporary issues............................................................67 Beginnings...........................................................................72 Orality and literacy...............................................................73

Commentaries.................................................................75

2 May 2015

Structure of the paper Paper 1 Paper length: 3 hours

1. Commentary 3 passages (must comment on two).

2. Two essays You can do one text-specific question, but the others are more general. Paper 2 Paper length: 1.5 hours 3 translation passages (will be different from the ones set for commentary in morning)

Text-reading There are five set texts: Sophocles: Ajax Euripides: Hippolytus Aristophanes: Thesmophriazusae Herodotus: Histories Book 1 Pindar: Olympian 1, Pythian 1, Pythian 9 Commentary passages: 2014: Pythian 9, Sophocles, Herodotus 2013: Olympian 1, Hippolytus, Thesmophoriazusae 2012: Pythian 1, Sophocles, Hippolytus 2011: Sophocles, Hippolytus, Herodotus 2010: Pythian 9, Hippolytus, Thesmophoriazusae 2009: Sophocles, Thesmophoriazusae, Herodotus

Exam technique adviceDon't be Athenocentric Essays o Commonest fault = lack of detail from texts o Good to mention texts not on the syllabus - rewarded if you do
? Old Oligarch, Aristophanes, Empedocles, Hippocratics, Thucydides, Gorgias, Protagoras, Plato, Hecataeus o Extended comparisons & proper development of extended arguments not encountered often enough o Don't need to talk about every texts in every essay

3 May 2015

o Stronger candidates probe & nuance the terms ofquestion in often subtle & interesting ways
? But do stick to terms of question o Don't essay-dump tutorial essays o With terms, think about how they might be translated into Greek Commentaries o Essential to analyse a passage in detail first before making more general comments. Don't just recourse to thematic material. o Pindar: good to talk about style, rhetoric, language, structure, ring-composition, metaphor, relationship between laudator/laudandus
? How a particular myth is being manipulated
? Need to know and explain mythic references
? i.e. what's significance of using Theban myth in Cyrene?
o Drama - not enough people comment on staging (who is on stage, entrances and exits)

Synopses Alpha texts Hippolytus 1-55 55-120 120-175 175-265 265-285 285-370 370-430 430-480 480-525 525-565 565-600 600-665 665-710 710-730 730-775

Aphrodite's introduction Hippolytus and Servant Chorus is worried about Phaedra Phaedra and the Nurse - Phaedra goes a bit mad Chorus question Nurse about Phaedra Nurse questions Phaedra and finds truth about Hippolytus, Nurse is shocked Phaedra speaks about morality, about her passion, how she tried to keep it quiet and then resolved to die. Talks about honour and shame. Nurse returns - Aphrodite very powerful, no point fighting Phaedra agrees for the Nurse to prepare a love-charm Chorus about Aphrodite/Eros and her power Phaedra starts to over hear Hippolytus and the Nurse and is horrified. She resolves again to die Hippolytus-Nurse dialogue, then Hippolytus rant against women Phaedra despairs. Fury with Nurse. Nurse is contrite but says if she'd been successful Phaedra would have been happy Chorus swears secrecy to Phaedra. Phaedra says she has found a solution of honour for her/children - to die. Chorus: want to fly away to ends of earth. About ship that

4 May 2015

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bought Phaedra from Crete Nurse announces she is dead. Chorus lament. Theseus arrives and asks what the shouting is about. Chorus tell him Phaedra is dead. Phaedra's body is wheeled out on ekkyklema Chorus laments, Theseus laments Theseus spots tablet and finds that Hippolytus assaulted Phaedra. Calls a curse from Poseidon about him, and then exiles. Hippolytus arrives, dialogue. He's confused as to why his father is so angry. Theseus goes on a bit of a rant about how awful he is. Hippolytus speaks in his own defence. Stresses his virtue and chastity. Tries to apply reason - why would he have done this?
Swears by the gods he didn't do it. Agon between Theseus and Hippolytus, Hippolytus leaves Chorus: gods can be helpful, prayer for fortune. Sadness for Hippolytus. Messenger arrives and narrates what has happened to Hippolytus Chorus: power of Aphrodite Artemis tells Theseus what actually happened Hippolytus is brought on by his attendants, he speaks about his pain Hippolytus-Artemis dialogue and then Artemis bids him farewell, promising vengeance on Aphrodite Hippolytus forgives Theseus and then dies

Thesmophoriazusae Opening
? Conversation between Euripides and Inlaw. Euripides won't say where they're going. Discussion of hearing and sight.
? They arrive at Agathon's house. Poncy slave comes out. Agathon's house
? Agathon comes and sings a song to Artemis and Apollo
? Inlaw is confused at Agathon's strange dress, Agathon explains how poets must write like their appearance
? Euripides asks Agathon to go to the Thesmophoria to speak in his defence
? Agathon refuses, but Inlaw volunteers
? Euripides transforms Inlaw by shaving his cheeks singeing his buttocks, and dressing him up in Agathon's clothes
? Euripide promises to rescue Inlaw if anything happens to him

5 May 2015Inlaw has a solo speech getting into the role as if he were really a woman on her way to the Thesmophoria, addressing her Thracian slave, talking about her children Pussy and Little Dickie

Start of the Thesmophoria festival
? Herald opens the assembly, invites them all to pray
? Prayers are made by the chorus and the herald, calling on many many deities fairly exhaustively
? Also curses a variety of crimes
? Herald calls attention in the formal way, stating who was president, who was scribe etc. Speeches at the assembly
? Mica: Euripides has long abused them with all sorts of slurs. This has made their husbands suspicious, so they can't do what they used to, i.e. have secret lovers, sneak in babies when they're childless etc. Husbands have put all sorts of locks on the doors - she suggests they should find a way to destroy Euripides.
? Chorus agree with her
? Kritylla: Euripides has persuaded men that the gods don't exist so no-one buys garlands from her anymore, so she is finding it hard to feed her kids.
? Chorus say her speech is even better
? In-Law: women are right to be angry, but also should remember that Euripides has only spilled beans on two or three of their tricks, when he knows many others. Tells story of cheating on husband after three days marriage, talks of other things the women do that Euripides hasn't exposed, like the woman who pretends to be in labour for ten days while she purchases a child
? Chorus expresses shock at her speech
? Mica suggests they should punish her by singeing her pussy
? Inlaw further enrages the woman by saying even more things that Euripides could have told about them, but didn't Scene with Cleisthenes
? Cleisthenes arrives from the agora, and announces grave news: Euripides has sent an infiltrator to the Thesmophoria!
The women are shocked.
? All the women are to be questioned to find the man
? As the first women are questioned, Inlaw tries to slip away by going for a pee but does not manage to escape
? Inlaw is unable to name her husband acceptably, or remember the rites of last year's Thesmophoria (though does guess correctly that the ceremony began with wine)

6 May 2015?Inlaw is stripped but manages to keep penis hidden for a bit before it is found Cleisthenes goes to report it to the authorities; Inlaw is put under guard Chorus search for any other infiltrators but don't find any

The "baby"
? Inlaw seizes Mica's baby and runs to the altar with it, threatening to kill it
? Mica is distraught, the women are shocked
? They pile up wood around the altar to burn him down
? Inlaw takes off the baby's clothes and finds a skin of wine
? Mica still begs for him to give the 'baby' back & is distraught
? Inlaw cuts the wineskin, but Mica catches the 'blood' in a sacrificial bowl, and the 'skin' is given to the priestess Inlaw
? Soliloquy of despair: does know what to do
? Wants to contact Euripides in the style of Palamedes
? Can't find oar-blades so uses votive tablets instead Parabasis
? Women claim they are maligned by men: if they are such an evil, why do men take such cares in keeping them in their houses?
? Assert they are better than men, by comparing men's /
women's names
? Then they list some things that men are worse than them at - stealing, being gluttons, losing things etc.
? They suggest that a woman who gives birth to a good son should be paid special honours, and one that has a bad son should be looked down on Helen scene
? Inlaw realises that the Palamedes trick isn't going to work, maybe because Euripides is ashamed the play was a flop
? He decides to try a more recent play, and starts to imitate Helen
? Euripides enters, disguised as Menelaus, shipwrecked
? He asks where he is & who rules etc. Then tries to find Proteus, but Kritylla keeps interrupting - Proteas (Athenian general) has been dead for a while
? Inlaw/Helen claims to be sitting on Proteas' tomb
? Recognition scene between Helen and Menelaus, who try to run away together, but Kritylla stops them

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