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Sex And Gender Notes

Classics Notes > Sexuality and Gender in the Ancient World Notes

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Sex and Gender Revision

1 Contents of this document: Structure of the paper.......................................................................4 Examiners' Reports.................................................................................................... 4 Feedback from mock................................................................................................. 4 Revision class advice................................................................................................. 4

Set texts........................................................................................... 5 Set text summaries..................................................................................5

Definitions...................................................................................... 18 People............................................................................................ 21 Evidence......................................................................................... 26 Essay plans..................................................................................... 34 Revision topics................................................................................ 42 WHOLE PERIOD.......................................................................................42 Sex........................................................................................................42 Gender...................................................................................................43 Sexuality................................................................................................44 Medical texts..........................................................................................45 Body......................................................................................................51 Magic.....................................................................................................52 ONLY GREEK...........................................................................................55 Gender in Archaic period.........................................................................55 Sexuality and marriage in Archaic Greece................................................57 Masculinity in Classical Greece................................................................61 Women in Classical Greece......................................................................63 Greek Core notes....................................................................................65 Aristophanes..........................................................................................66 Tragedy..................................................................................................72 Sex and relationships in Classical period..................................................75 After Classical Greece.............................................................................82 ONLY LATIN............................................................................................84 Sexual imagery......................................................................................84 Masculinity in Rome................................................................................87 Women in Rome.....................................................................................91 Marriage in Rome...................................................................................97 Ovid.....................................................................................................100 Early Christianity..................................................................................101

Past paper questions.....................................................................107

2 Structure of the paper 3 hours: 4 essays, out of a choice of 12. Exam guidance
- Need to show required level of familiarity with set texts, but also good to have knowledge with range of other material o Need to not just illustrate an impressive knowledge of the wideranging source material but to interpret & re-interpret material in light of challenging questions
- Good essays marked by strong arguments & considerable ingenuity &
intellectual creativity
- Disappointingly few essays discussed any of the sources in detail, or demonstrated evidence of knowledge of ancient languages (those that did were marred by inaccuracies)
- Several candidates made pleasing use of theoretical work on gender and sexuality o Some struggled too much with basic concepts such as liberation &
orientation
- Candidates did well who engaged closely with the wording of the question rather than producing list of facts related to general topic at hand o Importance of defining terms before launching in
- Question about gender does not mean just about women!
- Ancient Rome and the Roman Mediterranean are different
- Feminism is different from women's rights or freedoms Feedback from mock
- Need to give less of a "survey" of material and more of an argument
- Examine terms of question EVEN MORE
- Try and give more evidence for claims/more analysis i.e. talk about less things in more detail
- Don't try and be inclusive: get detailed examples for a couple of themes Revision class advice-

Don't reproduce tutorial essays o Be very hyper-critical of your own ideas Examiners want to see you making new connections, not looking for something prepared: how you look at a question you haven't thought about before First of all, define the question o What exactly does each word mean o What is the range of possibilities o If you can defend your interpretation of the question, you aren't going to be caught out Make a plan once you know the answer o Don't just start writing with rough idea of themes - know what your aim is Introduction - define question, give your answer, then give examiner a roadmap for your answer. Introduction is most important part of the essay: nteresting, tight, well-argued, clear After this it's mechanical, but do present your evidence o Better to discuss 2 things in detail and mention 5 in passing than go through 7 not in much detail

3 -45 min essays - you can't use as many examples, but do use nice details - but shouldn't be less ambitious or interesting o You should really consider them as 30/35 min essays You do need to show some breadth of knowledge. Probably don't answer ALL 4 question on Greece/Rome o Try not to repeat ideas and themes You need to show that you have read the set texts and have thought about it

4 Set texts??????Lefkowitz and Fant, Women's Life in Greece and Rome, no. 1-27, 36-50, 168, 176, 178-9, 181-207, 273-337, 369-440 Lyric o Semonides fr. 7 o Theognis 1231-1389 (Loeb) o Anacreon fr. 358 (Loeb) Tragedy: Agamemnon, Philoctetes, Medea Comedy: Lysistrata, Thesmo, Ecclesiazusae Greek prose: o Lysias 1 o Xenophon Oeconomicus o Aeschines 1, Against Timarachus o Senatusconsultum de Bacchanalibus, in Beard, North & Price, Religions of Rome Ovid, Ars Amatoria Musonius Rufus 39-49, 89-91 Pliny Letters, 3.11, 3.16, 4.10, 4.19, 5.16 , 6.33, 7.19, 7.24, 10.120 Juvenal 6 Soranus, Gynaecology The Forgotten Desert Mothers: Sayings, Lives and Stories of Early Christian Women o Lives of Amma Sarah, Syncletica and Theodora, Melania the Elder, Melania the Younger, Macrina the Younger, Marcella Pelagius, Letter to Demetrias Jerome, Letters, 22, 77, 107, 108, 117, 127, 128

Set text summaries Lefkowitz and Fant Laudatio Tuliae

Laudatio Turiae ("In praise of Turia") is a tombstone engraved with a carved epitaph that is a husband's eulogy of his wife. It was made in the late 1st century BC. It portrays the love of a husband for his loyal wife.This inscription is traditionally known as the "Laudatio Turiae".The attribution is uncertain, but the addressee was generally identified with Turia. The frequently moving eulogy inscribed on the stone is addressed from a husband to his deceased wife, lauding her virtues, self-sacrificing love, and unflinching loyalty toward him when she was still alive. The stone itself is broken, and parts have been found scattered around the city of Rome, although some sections remain lost. At 180 lines, the "Laudatio Turiae" is currently the longest surviving personal inscription from Classical Rome. The inscription gives a unique insight into the late 1st century Roman world during the rise of Augustus Caesar, as its extended history of "Turia's" life addresses many aspects of the Roman society. "Turia's" selfless deeds in defense of her persecuted husband range from sending him jewelry and money when he was in exile to offering him a divorce so he could have an heir---she was unable to bear children. Her husband also lovingly describes her virtues, among which he includes weaving, obedience, faithfulness to family, and religious purity. According to the inscription, her first accomplishment worthy of praise was avenging her parents' murder, which gives a rather surprising look into the roles of women within the family and society. The husband also says the marriage was unusual, because it lasted forty years with her dying first while he was much older.

5 'it was mainly due to your efforts that the death of your parents was not left unavenged.' 'why should I mention your domestic virtues: your loyalty, obedience, affability, reasonableness, industry in working wool, religion without superstition, sobriety of attire, modesty of appearance?...you have innumerable other merits in common with all married women who care for their good name.' provided for his needs when he was away - money and provisions. begged for his life. 'although your body was full of bruises, your spirit was unbroken and you kept reminding him of Caesar's edict with its expression of pleasure at my reinstatement...' 'I was saved by your good advice', prepared a safe hiding-place couldn't have children - wanted to find him a wife so he wouldn't be heirless. Men's opinions on women
- Claudia, Rome 2nd cent. BC. 'she loved her husband in her heart. She bore two sons....she was pleasant to talk with, and she walked with grace. She kept the house and worked in wool. That is all.'
- Amymone, housewife. Rome, first century BC. 'here lies Amymone wife of Marcus best and most beautiful, worker in wool, pious, chaste, thrifty, faithful, a stayer-at-home (domiseda).
- Allia Potestas, Rome, late 3rd-4th cen. AD. freedwoman. ironic tone in excessive praise? e.g. claims to chastity (but 2 lovers), likens them to Pylades and Orestes. mythological exempla serves to mock? unlike tone of 'Turia'. Eumachia, Pompeii, first cent AD. priestess and prominent citizen of Pompeii. patroness of guild of fullers (cleaners, dyers and clothing makers) one of most influential trade-guilds of city because of importance of wool industry for P's economy. provided fullers with large and beautiful building as HQ. modelled herself on Livia. over each of 2 entrances, dedication Eumachia...in her own name and that of her son...built with her own funds...and dedicated them. fullers dedicated a statue to her. ARCHAIC TEXTS Semonides 7"From the start, the gods made women different" 1) Pig - rolls around in dirt 2) Fox - doesn't miss anything, good or bad, mixes up good and bad, mood always changing 3) Dog - wants to hear / know everything, sticks nose into everything. Can't stop her barks even with threats or knocking out her teeth or with sweet talk - always talking 4) Made of earth - no sense of good/bad. No useful skills except to eat and sit by fire 5) Sea - two-faced. One day calm + smiling, next wild + unapproachable 6) Ass - won't give in unless you threaten + force her. Does her work but eats everything in sight. Welcomes any man that passes for sex. 7) Weasel - undesirable, un-charming in every way, but sex-crazed. Man that sleeps with her gets seasick. Steals from neighbours. 8) Horse - avoids all work, won't touch mill or sieve, won't get dirty, washes twice a day, rubs self with perfume, combs hair, puts in flowers. Fine for a rich man, but a pain for anyone else. 9) Ape - hideous face. Laughing-stock walking round town. No shame, doesn't care if people laugh at her. Plots all day how to do greatest harm. 10) Bee - good luck in finding her. Manages a thriving household, has handsome children. Doesn't sit with other women discussing sex. Zeus made women as greatest pain to men

Anacreon 358 "Love throws me a ball, I'm in love with a girl from Lesbos, but she scorns my white hair and gasps for another [female]" ARISTOPHANES 6

Assemblywomen synopsis The play concerns a group of women, whose leader is Praxagora. She has decided that the women must convince the men to give them control of Athens, because they could rule it better than they have been. The women, in the guise of men, sneak into the assembly and vote the measure, convincing some of the men to vote for it because it is the only thing they have not tried. The women then institute a communist-like government in which the state feeds, houses, and generally takes care of every Athenian. They enforce an idea of equality by allowing every man to sleep with every woman, but that the man must sleep with an ugly woman before he may sleep with a beautiful one. There is a scene in which two men are talking. One of them is going along with the new government, giving his property to the women, and obeying their orders. The other does not wish to give up his property, but he is more than willing to take advantage of the free food. The following scene has a pair of young lovers unable to make their tryst as a succession of ever older and more hideous women attempting to and eventually succeeding in dragging the man off to make love to them first, as laid down by the new laws. The final scene or epilogue has Praxagora's husband, Blepyrus, on his way to the communal feast, and inviting the audience to join him.?

Written at end of Aristophanes' life in 392 After loss of Peloponnesian war, start of new Corinthian war, death of Socrates: this is no longer the golden age of Athens.

Lysistrata synopsis Lysistrata is an extraordinary woman with a large sense of individual responsibility. She has convened a meeting of women from various city states in Greece. With support from Lampito, the Spartan, Lysistrata persuades the other women to withhold sex from their menfolk to force them to end the Peloponnesian War. The women are reluctant but the deal is sealed with a solemn oath around a wine bowl. It is a long and detailed oath, in which the women abjure all their sexual pleasures, including The Lioness on The Cheese Grater (a sexual position). Soon after the oath is finished, a cry of triumph is heard from the nearby Acropolis - the old women of Athens have seized control of it at Lysistrata's instigation, since it holds the state treasury, without which the men cannot long continue to fund their war. Lampito goes off to spread the word of revolt and the other women retreat behind the barred gates of the Acropolis to await the men's response. Fight between Old Men and Old Women. The magistrate then arrives with some Scythian archers. He reflects on the hysterical nature of women, their devotion to wine, promiscuous sex and exotic cults but above all he blames men for poor supervision of their womenfolk. He has come for silver from the state treasury to buy oars for the fleet and he instructs his Scythians to begin levering open the gate. However, they are quickly overwhelmed by groups of unruly women. Lysistrata restores order and allows the magistrate to question her. She explains to him the frustrations women feel at a time of war when the men make stupid decisions that affect everyone. She tells him that war will be a woman's business from now on. She then dresses the magistrate like a corpse for laying out and advises him that he's dead. Outraged at these indignities, he storms off to report the incident, while Lysistrata returns to the Acropolis. The debate or agon is continued between the Chorus of Old Men and Old Women until Lysistrata returns to the stage with some news --- her comrades are desperate for sex and they are beginning to desert on the silliest pretexts (for example, one woman says she has to go home to air her fabrics by spreading them on the bed). After rallying her comrades and restoring their discipline, Lysistrata again returns to the Acropolis to continue waiting for the men's surrender.

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