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Lucretius Book 1 - Latin Core Features of Lucretian language: 1) first declension genitive singular: puellai for puellae 2) passive infinitive: reg-ier for reg-i Common constructions
- new compound adjectives
- neuter plural + genitive
- wordplay: use of etymologically related words near each otherperiphrasis: natura + genitive
Prayer to Venus (1-43) genetrix mother Aeneadae Aeneas and his descendants voluptas pleasure, delight, joy almus nourishing, fruitful subter below, beneath, underneath + acc concelebro fill, animate, enliven, cause to abound, fill with your presence concipio take in, foster, conceive amantum gen pl of participle: animantium - living things exortus rising up nubila clouds adventus coming, arrival caelum heaven daedalus wonder-working, varied, Daedalan suavis acc pl (sweet) summitto send up niteo shine, be bright diffusus spreading species look, appearance, sight, face vernus of spring simul ac as soon as dies
-> season patefactast 'is revealed' reseratus unlocked, set free genitabilis productive, fruitful, generative Favonius the west wind aerius of the air, high, lofty vigeo thrive, flourish, be lively initus entrance, approach, arrival perculsus thrilled + corda, acc of respect percello urge on, excite, impel significo proclaim, make known tua vi 'by your might' inde next fera wild animal trano swim across
lepor attractiveness, charm, delight, pleasure laetus
-> rich, fruitful quisque each pergo press on, proceed, hasten inducere pergis
= induces frondifer leaf-bearing incutio strike into, instill blandus pleasant, agreeable, charming incutiens blandum amorem per pectora omnibus efficio accomplish, effect, achieve generatim 'after their kind' saecla races propago extend, enlarge, spread, propagate cupide eagerly guberno steer, govern natura rerum the nature of things dius bright, divine, shining in dias oras luminis 'into the bright coasts of light' quicquam anything (nominative) socius partner, companion, helper studeo be eager, desire. Wish pango make, compose, writes ornatus endowed + dat quo magis all the more moenera works sopio lull to sleep, calm, settle, make still iuvo delight, please, gratify mortalis acc pl tranquilla pace ablative teres rounded, smooth cervix neck repono place back repostus
-> thrown back suspicio look upwards inhio gape at, gaze wistfully at spiritus breath resupinus lying on the back, thrown back spiritus resupini the breath of him lying backwards
loquella speech, words, discourse recubo lie on back circumfusus bending around (him) agere hoc attend to my task aequo animo with untroubled mind propago (f) race, descendants, stock, offspring deesse be lacking, fail to support omnis natura divom the whole nature of the gods (subject) fruor enjoy, delight in (+ abl)
necessest=necesse it is necccesary that est semoveo move apart, put aside, remove, separate seiungo disunite, part, divide privatus free from polleo be strong, flourish, thrive indigus needing, in want promeritum merit, service, sacrifice Appeal to Memmius (50-61) quod superest for the rest sagax keen, acute, shrewd adhibeo apply, hold toward auris
= ears dispono distribute, arrange, set out studium zeal, eagerness, exertion intellego understand, comprehend relinquo abandon, leave behind priusquam before prius quam before they are understood intellega sint incipiam future indicative of incipio dissero examine, argue, discuss, treat summa ratione the working of the heavens on high caeli aucto increase, enlarge resolvo release peremptus destroyed, extinguished materies matter genitalis fruitful, generative sueo be wont, accustomed semen, seminis seed corpora [quae sunt] genitalia rebus (we would expect rerum) rationem reddo render an account reddunda in ratione "when giving an account" usurpo seize upon, use, name, call ex illis... primis from them as first beginnings Eulogy of Epicurus (62-79) humanus human cum humana vita - iaceret - in terris foede foully, cruelly, basely, horribly opprimo weigh down ante oculos so that all might see religio superstition super...insto standing over (+ dat/abl mortalibus) homo ausus est tollere mortalis oculos contra comprimo check, suppress fama legend caelum [cum] minitanti murmure
acer artus pervinco vividus vivida vus animi extra procedo longe peragro inmensum
sharp, keen, ardent, eager close, narrow, confining conquer completely full of life, lively, vigourous the lively force of his mind beyond advance, proceed by far wander through, travel, pass through boundless extent, vastness, immensity; 'the measureless universe' quid possit oriri what is able to arise finio limit, bound terminus boundary stone (between one property and another) quanam ratione on what principle alte haerens deep-set cuique here: each type of thing quare therefore vicissim on the other hand, on the contrary, again, in turn obtero crush, trample on, ravage nos accusative (of exaequat) exaequo regard as equal, make equal The fear of impiety (80-100) vereor respect, fear reor reckon, calculate vereor - illud - in his rebus - ne rearis...
forte by chance, perhaps impia rationis
= elementa- rationis impii (transferred elementa epithet) elementa first priniciples ratio here = system of philosophy indugredi
= ingredi quod contra but on the contrary Aulide at Aulis quo pacto in the way in which, even as, for instance, just as foede foully delectus chosen simul
= simul ac infula band, bandage, fillet comptus (-us) head-dress, ornament for hair, tresses mala cheek pari parte in equal length profusast
= profusa est hunc propter by his side queo be able
quod [ea] princeps donarat - regem - nomine patrio tremebundus trembling, quivering Hymenaeus the wedding-song non ut posset comitari inceste impurely, sinfully, unchastely mactatus slaying, killing faustus well-omened, favourable, fortunate, lucky The fear of death (102-35) tutemet
= tu quovis tempore some day or other, at some time or other descisco withdraw, leave, desert terriloquus fear-inspiring quippe etenim for indeed quae neuter nom pl, following somnia vitae rationes principles of conduct aerumna toil, hardship, distress si homines viderent esse - certam finem - aerumnarum aliqua ratione in some way resto withstand, resist, oppose, stand firm facultas capability, power, means ignoratur there is ignorance intereo die diremptus torn apart, dissolved lacuna pit, hole, pool, chasm divinitus from heaven, by a god, by divine influence perennis everlasting, evergreen clueo be famed, be spoken of, win renown quae goes with coronam?
edo give out, put forth, set forth praeterea besides templa
->regions, realms species vision, ghost (obj of commermorat) commemero remember cum...tum not only...but also quapropter therefore meatus motion, going, movement cum primis more especially videndum [est]
vigilans awake morbus disease obeo go to meet Difficulty of the task (136-45) inlustro illuminate, ellucidate, explain, make clear reperta discoveries animi 'in my mind' egestas poverty, want
speratus expected praepando spread before penitus deeply, far within Nothing is created out of nothing (146-214) discutio dash to pieces, shatter species face, outwards appearance ratio law, inner working principium cuius the beginning of this [study]
nobis ethic dative divinitus . by divine power nulla ratione in no way quas ob res for which reasons tum perspiciemus rectius - quod sequimur inde from that principle egeo lack, be in want +abl squamiger bearing scales armentum cattle culta cultivated land incerto partu with no certainty as to birth constare remain constant quippe ubi seeing that qui how consisto rest, remain, stand at nunc but as things are in oras luminis into the borders of light inde ubi materies et 'from the place where the matter and first prima corpora bodies of each resides' cuisque inest hac re therefore secretus unique, separated, distinct facultas capability, power, ability vitis vine frumentum corn, grain fundi passive infinitive of fundo calore [aestatis]
vere in spring cum certa semina rerum - suo tempore - confluxerunt cum here: when quodcumque whatever quocumque creatur
- patefacit tuto safely incerto spatio at irregular intervals quippe ubi seeing that genitali concilio from a birthgiving concourse forent there would be arceo shut up, confine, keep off, hinder concilium association, gathering, sexual union, coition
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