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Change/Innovation??Markides: displacing a market leader is not done by beating them at their own game, but by redefining the rules of the game. Innovation - the adoption of an idea or behaviour that is new to the organisation's industry, market or general environment (Daft). Need to be poised to innovate/change just to survive in increased competition. 4 types of change: products/services, strategy/structure, people/culture, technology (Daft). However all are highly interlinked. Success: the newly adopted idea must create a sustained competitive advantage which either creates a new earning stream or enhances an existing one (Teece). Most change initiatives fail.
Reasons for failureOrganisations must mould their structures and cultures to institutionalize innovation: o Kotter - a major barrier to change and innovation is a lack of urgency, Sutton: many managers can't bring themselves to lose money right now to test ideas that may never make any money, in the hope that some of them will make money later. o Need to break from the past - Sutton - by making yourself uncomfortable, provoke unpleasant emotions, ignore the experts, sacred cow workshops, bring in slow learners, disband and reform teams. Expose and challenge assumptions. o And need to make lots of information available cognitive psychologists have shown that the biggest hurdle to solving problems is that people can't put their fingers on the necessary information at the right time. o Hargadon and Sutton: the best innovators have systemized the generation and testing of new ideas through the knowledge brokering cycle. o Often information spread is hampered through geographical distance, political squabbles, internal competition and bad incentives. Need companywide gatherings, brainstorming sessions, informal meetings etc.However different conditions are needed to implement innovation: o Daft: Need for both organic and mechanic conditions to achieve both innovation and efficiency. Organic - system
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