This is an extract of our Culture document, which we sell as part of our Organisational Analysis and Behaviour Notes collection written by the top tier of Oxford University students.
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CultureHofstede: 'the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes members of one group from another'.
? O'Toole and Bennis: the new metric of corporate leadership should be closer to the extent to which executives create organizations which are economically, ethically and socially sustainable - the culture they foster.
? Barney: culture can be a source of sustainable advantage if it is valuable, rare and imperfectly imitable. ? Models of excellence/enterprise culture have identified cultural management as a key contributor to comepetitive advantage, eg Japanese collective commitment (Legge)
? Eg Van Maanen - Disneyland. Fixed view about the attributes carried by the Disneyland worker, culture is defined in the handbook. Employees schooled in the proper use of language, greatest reward of the job is belonging to the network of like minded sociable peers. Doesn't pay well, supervision is skin close, working conditions are chaotic, jobs require minimum intelligence, ask a fanatical level of loyalty/sacrifice, but attracts a particularly able workforce with more skills and qualifications than needed. Due to a culture which encourages socialization, no room for experimentation, integrates emotional management.
? However strong cultures may not be good cultures - Legge - while they can facilitate coordinated and rapid decision making due to shared basic assumptions, they can result in an inward looking, conformist, complacent organization sunk into a morass of group think and a rigid outlook. Factors which affect culture depends on the lens with which you view it
? Social emergent view: culture is something a firm 'is', it is best defined as a collective consciousness, a transfer of anthropological ideas like structural-functional theory to organizational analysis. o It is a system of 'shared cognitions, knowledge and beliefs' (Legge), that emerges from the social interaction of the members of organizations. o This means the factors that affect the culture are due to the people in it. o People do not enter corporate cultures without having had some cultural conditioning elsewhere (Trice and Beyer).
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