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Motivation, work design, job satisfaction, job performance Motivation and drivers
? Maslow's hierarchy of needs is the founding theory of human motivation: o Humans are motivated to act as a means of fulfilling needs, starting with physiological needs, working up through safety needs, social needs, esteem needs and self actualization needs. o Higher needs only become operative once lower needs have been satisfied. o Once satisfied a need no longer motivates. o Poor worker more motivated by money, rich worker more interested in factors like job challenge and variety. o Work design process must take into account where in the hierarchy workers are. o However job satisfaction is the outcome rather than performance. o Fails to take account of the fact that some needs may be satisfied outside the context of work (Torrington and Hall)
? Similarly Nohria et al use findings from biology and neuroscience to identify the four basic emotional needs that motivate us. o The need to acquire, bond, comprehend and defend. o Drives correspond well with Maslow's but each is independent and they don't need to be satisfied in any order. o Work design should target the four drivers to achieve satisfaction and performance:
? Acquire - scarce goods, physical/experiences/social status - met by the reward system tying rewards to performance.
? Bond - form connections - culture that promotes teamwork.
? Comprehend - challenge of working out answers - design jobs that are meaningful, interesting, challenging, make a contribution.
? Defend - protect against external threats and promote justice - increase transparency and emphasise fairness. Both support the view that too much emphasis in work design goes on pay systems:
? Pfeffer: widespread view that pay systems and associated measurement practices required to implement them are critical to organizational effectiveness. Eg NUMM - 10% wage premium over rivals delivered 50% higher productivity.
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