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Gender Notes

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Gender 'Gender and the career choice process' Correll 2001 o 'cultural beliefs about gender are argued to bias individuals perceptions of their competence at various career relevant tasks' o 'women and men hold different kinds of jobs' o 'differential occupational distribution of men and women explains the majority of the gender group in wages' o 'supply side processes are important because the supply networks from which employers recruit are already segregated by gender' o 'the career choice process occurs throughout the life cycle as individuals make a series of decisions that have occupational consequences'
 'gender differences in the selection of activities that constrain occupational choices often occur earlier in the life cycle' o 'males are more likely than females to be enrolled in advanced level math'
 E.g. 13.8% of engineering degrees to women o BUT 'considerable similarity in the structural location and resources available to male and female youth' o 'studies demonstrate that gender differences in mathematical performances are small, have declined over time, and vary in direction' o 'cultural beliefs about gender ('gender beliefs') are the component of gender stereotypes that contain specific expectations for competence' o 'In North America, at least, men are widely thought to be more competent than women, except when performing 'feminine' tasks' o 'mathematical tasks are often stereotyped as 'masculine' tasks' o 'dampening effect of a cultural message that suggests that women either could not or should not do math and science' o 'the use of a more lenient standard to judge male performance causes males to be perceived as having more task ability than females, even when males and females perform at the same objective levels' o If they know about these expectations 'knowledge creates anxiety and actually leads to poorer performances' o But 'gender beliefs are not rigid scripts that individuals are compelled to follow' o 'one must feel competent at the skills or tasks necessary for a given career in order to commit oneself to pursuing that career'
 'females who receive positive feedback about their mathematical ability should be less likely to perceive that they are skilled at maths since this perception is incongruent with widely shared beliefs about gender and mathematics' o 'gender typing of particular kinds of work changes over time' 'Do women lack ambition?' Fels 2004 o 'how hidden and emotion laden the subject of ambition is for women' o For women ''ambition' necessarily implied egotism, selfishness, self-aggrandizement, or their manipulative use of others for one's own ends' o 'none of them would admit to being ambitious' o In nearly all of the childhood ambitions, 2 elements:
 'mastery of a special skill' e.g. writing/dancing
 Recognition o 'it's no secret that women receive less recognition for their accomplishments than men do'
 'teachers praise boys more than girls'
 'men to dominate class discussions disproportionately to their numbers' o 'doing a thing well can be a reward in and of itself'
 But pursuit of mastery eventually requires 'an evaluating, encouraging audience must be present for skills to develop'

o 'women too frequently seek to deflect attention from themselves' o 'women, after all, may just be less interested in personal attention than men' o 'girls and women more openly seek and compete for affirmation when they are with other women' o 'change their behaviours when it comes to competing directly with men' o 'although women are no longer denied access to training in most types of careers, they have come up against what seems to be an even more powerful barrier to their emotions'
 'in order to be seen as feminine, they must provide or relinquish resources - including recognition - to others'
 'femininity exists only in the context of a relationship'
 'when women speak as much as men in a work situation or compete for high visibility positions, their femininity is routinely assailed'

'something must be wrong with their sexuality'

Whereas 'one can be masculine in solidarity splendour'
 'agamic' - The Victorian term for women who pursued higher education and were therefore considered asexual
 Career women 'will somehow fail to fulfil the feminine role'

E.g. can't have kids/will be bad mothers

'The data on which these 'facts' are largely based do not support the conclusions' o 'scenarios in which the (masculine + feminine) traits inevitably conflict' o 'women must decide whether to subordinate their needs to those of their male partners and colleagues' o 'should she be understanding and sensititve to the need s of others (feminine) or willing to take a stand (masculine)?' o 'women have greater opportunities for forming and pursuing their own goals now than at any time in history. But doing so is socially condoned only if they have first satisfied the needs of all their family members. If this requirement isn't met, women's ambitions as well as their femininity will be called into question' o 'elimination of barriers that have historically kept women from mastering a subject' BUT still pressure to 'relinquish opportunities for recognition' stand in the way of ambition o 'expectation that 'feminine' women will forfeit opportunities for recognition' o 'it falls nearly entirely on the individual woman to carve out a life for herself with adequate meaning and satisfaction' o 'women must formulate life plans that include the potential for receiving earned recognition' o 'actively pursuing advantageous connections runs counter to the classic ideal of femininity' o 'women tend to feel foolish asking for appropriate acknowledgement of their contributions' o 'they feel selfish when they do not subordinate their needs to those of others' o 'the social rewards that women can expect to reap for their skills are diminished' o 'routinely underestimate their abilities'
 'if you don't think the chances are great that you will reach a career goal - you won't attempt to reach it' o 'women now experience the most powerful social and institutional discrimination during their twenties and early thirties' o 'must decide whether to try to hold on to their own ambitions or downsize or abandon them'
 'often, a young woman must make this decision at the moment when she is just learning to be a parent'
 'these days, the threat to women's ambitions comes at a later phase of women's lives'

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