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Leadership Notes

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Leadership 'What makes a leader?' Goleman 1998 'identifing individuals with the 'right stuff' to be leaders is more art than science' All leaders 'have a high degree of what has come to be known as 'emotional intelligence'' IQ 'matters, but mainly as 'threshold capabilities'; that is, they are entry level requirements for executive positions' Without emotional intelligence 'a person can have the best training in the world, an incisive, analytical mind, and an endless supply of smart ideas, but he still won't make a great leader' Components of emotional intelligence:
 Self awareness


'having a deep understanding of one's emotions, strengths, weaknesses, needs and drives'


'people with strong self-awareness are neither overly critical nor unrealistically hopeful' - honest


'recognise how their feelings affect them, other people, and their job performance'


'knows where he is headed and why'


'comfortable talking about their limitations and strengths'


'play to their strengths'


But 'many executives mistake candor about feelings for 'wimpiness''
 Self regulation:


'biological impulses drive our emotions. We cannot do away with them - but we can do much to manage them'


'frees us from being prisoners of our feelings'


'able to create an environment of trust and fairness'


'fewer bad moods at the top mean fewer throughout the organisation'


'people who have mastered their emotions are able to roll with the changes'


'impulsiveness often works against them' when they reach the top if not self regulated
 Motivation:


'driven to achieve beyond expectations'


'those with leadership potential are motivated by a deeply embedded desire to achieve for the sake of achievement'


'passion for the work itself'


'unflagging energy to do things better'


'remain optimistic even when the score is against them'


'commitment to the organisation'
 Empathy:


'thoughtfully considering employees' feelings?


'deep understanding of the existence and importance of cultural and ethnic differences'
 Social skills:


'friendliness with a purpose'


'have a network in place when the time for action comes'


'expert persuaders'


'no leader is an island' 'Upper Echelons Theory' Hambrick 2007

o 'executives experiences, values, and personalities greatly influence their interpretations of the situations they face and, in turn, affect their choices'
 Bounded rationality o 'If a great deal of (managerial) discretion is present, then managerial characteristics will become reflected in strategy and performance' o ''executives' experiences, values, and personalities affect their':
 Field of vision
 Selective perception (what they actually see/hear)
 Interpretation o Depends on culture:
 US 'arguably more diverse than CEO populations in almost any other country'
 'CEOs in Japan are essentially interchangeable' 'Managerial leadership: a review of theory and research' Yukl 1989 o 'Leadership has been defined in terms of individual traits, leader behaviour, interaction patterns, role relationships, follower perceptions, influence over followers, influence on task goals, and influence on organisational culture' o Not just scholarly 'reflect deep disagreement about identification of leaders and leadership processes' o 'it is obvious that a person can be a leader without being a manager, and a person can be a manager without leading' o 'indeed, some managers do not even have subordinates' o 'managers are people who do things right and leaders are people who do the right thing' (Bennis & Nanus 1985) o 'managers are concerned about how things get done and leaders are concerned with what things mean to people' (Zalenuk 1977) o 'leaders influence commitment, whereas managers merely carry out position responsibilities and exercise authority' o Power influence approach
 'explain leadership effectiveness in terms of amount of power possessed by a leader'
 Personal power vs position power o Behaviour approach o Trait approach
 'massive research effort failed to find any traits that would guarantee leadership success'
 'sometimes balance must be achieved between 2 competing trails' o Situational approach
 'importance of contextual factors'
 'over the long run, effective leaders act to modify the situation to increase their discretion' o 'there is a mystical, romantic quality associated with leadership' 'What do managers do?' Hales 1986 o 'The following strands are common, if not universal':
 'acting as figurehead and leader of an organisational unit'
 Liaison
 'Monitoring, filtering and disseminating information'
 'Allocating resources'
 Handling disturbances
 Negotiating
 Innovating
 Planning
 Controlling and directing subordinates o 'What managers do has different durations, rhythms, degrees of uncertainty and origins'

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