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Poetry, Patronage And Praise Donne, Daniel And Jonson Notes

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POETRY,

PATRONAGE

AND

PRAISE:

DONNE,


DANIEL

AND

JONSON:


Discuss

the

self--portrayal

of

the

poet

as

lover


in

the

light

of

the

statement

that

'Archetypally,


the

relationship

between

Elizabeth

and

her


courtiers

reflected

a

moment

in

which

a


courtship

had

been

artificially

frozen

----

in


which

the

"lover"

and

"beloved"

stood


permanently

on

the

threshold

of

a

sexual


relationship

which

would

never

be

realized'


(Catherine

Bates)


LOVER

+

PATRON


"Literary

patronage

was

viewed

by

many


writers

as

a

tyranny;

but

so

was

the

market"


PATRONAGE

+

TYRANNY

I have

too

oft

preferred

Men

past

their

terms,


and

praised

some

names

too

much,

But

'twas


with

purpose

to

have

made

them

such.

(Ben


Jonson)


Would

any

leaden

Midas,

any

mossy

patron,


have

his

ass's

ears

deified,

let

him

but

come


and

give

me

some

pretty

sprinkling

to

maintain


the

expenses

of

my

throat,

and

I'll

drop

out


such

an

encomium

on

him

that

shall


immortalize

him

as

long

as

there

is

ever

a


bookbinder

in

England'

(The

Pilgrimage

to


Parnassus).


MOTIVES

OF

PATRONAGE


Now

as

herself

a

poem

she

does

dress,


And

curls

a

line

as

she

would

do

a

tress;


Powders

a

sonnet

as

she

does

her

hair,


Then

prostitutes

them

both

to

public

air.


(Richard

Lovelace)


PUBLIC

WRITING

AS

CHEAP


"Complaints

and

praises

everie

one

can

write,


/And

passion--out

their

pangs

in

statelie


rimes,"/

But

of

loves

pleasures

none

did

ever


write

/

That

hath

succeeded

in

these

latter


times

(NASHE)

Do

you

agree?


POETRY

/

PRAISE

VS

REAL

LOVE


If

you

can

thinke

these

flatteries,

they

are,

For


then

your

judgement

is

below

my

praise,

If


they

were

so,

oft

flatteries

work

as

farre

As


Counsels,

and

as

farre

th'endeavour

raise.


Examine

some

of

the

literary

consequences

of


that

"busy

mart

of

bargain

and

exchange

that


constituted

the

sixteenth

century

patronage


system

(Catherine

Bates)


MARKET

/

LITERARY

EFFECTS


"When

poets

wrote

about

love

they

were,

as


often

as

not,

writing

about

what

really


concerned

them,

namely

their

prospects

of


advancement

at

court.'


PATRONAGE

AND

LOVE


'That

man

who

dwells

upon

himself,

who

is


always

conversant

in

himself,

rests

in

his

true


centre'

(John

Donne).


SELF

PRESENTATION

+

DONNE


"I

would

fain

do

something,

but

that

I

cannot


tell

what,

is

no

wonder.

For

to

choose,

is

to

do;


but

to

be

no

part

of

any

body,

is

to

be


nothing...Men

of

wit

and

delightful


conversation,

[are]

but

as

moles

for

ornament,


except

they

be....incorporated

into

the

body

of


the

world

(John

Donne,

letter

to

Sir

Henry


Goodyer)


DONNE

IN

SOCIETY


'Donne's

motivation

for

writing

poetry

was


undoubtedly

various,

responding

to

intimately


personal

and

intellectual

impulses

as

well

as

to


professional

advancement.'


PATRONAGE

+

ADVANCEMENT


What

would

you

identify

as

the

main

'personal


and

intellectual

impulses'

motivating

Donne

as


a

writer

of

poetry

and

or

prose?


this

new

man,

not

least

by

his

desperate


search

for

a

closer

and

more

equal

love'


(KELEN

CARR)


Catherine

Bates:

Poetry,

Patronage

and

The

Court

1. WHY


A)

Newly

invented

printed

press:

*

*

*

*

*

Disseminating

texts

at

V

high

rate

?

BUT

writers,

editors,

translators

and

compilers

did

not


earn

living

from

their

labours.


Receving

a

single

payment

for

their

manuscripts

but

no

royalties

after,

writers

remained


dependent

as

ever

on

patrons

from

employment

+

retainerships

+

cash


PAMPHLET

or

small

volume

of

poetry

in

Eliz

period

=

40

shillings

-

only

dramatists

made


profit

(but

it

was

specifically

the

performance

and

not

the

publication

that

netted

an

income)


see

Shakespeare

with

share

in

theatre,

company

etc)


Publish

did

NOT

equal

profit

-

the

days

when

a

writer

might

make

a

fortune

off

his

pen

and


claim

like

Pope

to

be

"Above

a

Patron"

were

long

off.


Literture

?

written

at

behest

of

patron

/

to

attract

/

praise

them

=

LITERATURE

which


explores

the

vagaries

/

difficutles

/

compromises

of

PATRON

SYSTEM

=

much

writing

of

16

C.

B)

Politics

+

Power


Tudors

used

patronage

as

a

way

of

regulating

flow

of

gifts

in

order

to

implement

their

overall


policy

of

centralizing

political

power

* sly

distribution

of

titles,

lands,

livings,

offices,

sinecures

etc

they

successfully

transformed


what

has

once

been

an

overweening

nobility

into

a

"set

of

shameless

mendicants"


Lawerence

Stone

(1965)

(The

Crisis

of

Aristocracy,

1558--1641)

* Patronage

extended

in

a

pyramid

fashion,

all

the

way

down

social

hierarchy

-

favoured

nobles


/

gentry

themselves

bestowing

positions

and

living

that

were

within

their

gift

-

but

the


monarch

remained

at

the

apex

-

perceived

as

ultimate

source

of

bounty

and

munificence.

* Court

was

centre

of

literary

+

cultural

patronage

owed

much

to

the

Tudor

flair

for

publicity


and

a

shrewd

recognition

that

writers

could

serve

a

royal

turn.


E.g

Henry

VII

was

first

king

to

appoint

official

King

Poet


Henry

VIII

continued

the

tradition

his

father

put

in

place

in

1512

and

appointed

Skelton

to

the


post

of

King's

Poet

-

gathered

around

his

scholars,

lettered

men

of

the

younger,

humanist


generation


E.g

Admiring

Erasmus

compared

the

royal

court

to

a

university)


e.g

BUT

Writing

from

(what

he

thought

was

the

more

niggardly)

Eliz

period,

Puttenham

recalled


how

Henry

VIII

"for

a

few

Psalms

of

David

turned

into

English

Metre

by

Sternhold,

made

him


groom

of

his

privy

chamber

and

gave

him

many

other

good

gifts"

(Arte

of

P.

1589)

Not

entirely

true

Eliz

did

pay

Spenser

PS50

for

The

Faerie

Queene

*

=
=

=
=

=

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