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7 Phonemes Notes

Linguistics Notes > Phonetics and Phonology Notes

This is an extract of our 7 Phonemes document, which we sell as part of our Phonetics and Phonology Notes collection written by the top tier of Cambridge University students.

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Phonemes

1 Learning Objective(s)
By the end of the lesson, you will be able to l explain the most fundamental phonemic concepts.

2 Phone l l l l l l

It is a distinct speech sound or gesture.
It is not specific to any language.
The word pin [pɪn] has three phones.
It shows the sound(s) in detail.
Square brackets [ ] are used to show phones.
Its adjective is phonetic.

3 Phoneme l l l l l l

It is a sound or a set of sounds.
It is specific to a language.
It distinguishes one word from another.
Slashes / / are used to show phonemes.
It shows the sound(s) in general.
Its adjective is phonemic.

4 Phonemic Transcription l l l l

It shows the sound(s) in general.
It is placed between slashes / /.
It is used for broad transcription.
It is used in most dictionaries.

5 Phonetic Transcription l l l

It shows the sound(s) in detail.
It is placed between square brackets [ ].
It is used for narrow transcription.

6 Aspiration l

It is a strong burst of breath during the release of an obstruent (plosives, fricatives,
affricates).

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