This is a sample of our (approximately) 8 page long Governance notes, which we sell as part of the Transport and Mobilities Notes collection, a 2.1 package written at Oxford University in 2016 that contains (approximately) 30 pages of notes across 4 different documents.
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Transport and Mobilities 3: Governance Notes to discuss changes needed in transport policy, challenges for governance and the role of governance in sustainable transport Contents
Key Words Transport Policy - Traditional policy, Issues in policy, Changes needed Mobility Governance Governance Challenges - Fragmentation, In Climate Change Context, Multi Level Governance
5. Governance for Low Carbon Transport - Incompatibilities. Power Relations
6. Key References Key words Sustainable transport: the provision of safe, effective and efficient access and mobility into the future while considering the economic, social and environmental needs of society (US Dept of Transport) New realism: conceptual response to the crisis pervading 'predict and provide' orientated UK transport policy in the 1990s New urbanism: people and urban spaces are directly integrated into city design Federalism: set of political ideals that seek to inform federation development Benson and Jordan (2011) Intergovernmentalist perspective: powerful member states the key actors in policy making process (Gulbrandsen and Christensen, 2014) Supranationalism: the increasing multilevel governance character of policy making in the EU (Hooghe and Marks, 2003) Predict and provide (Owens, 1995)- focussing on increasing capacity, demands are projected and equated with needs then met by infrastructure (Vigar, 2002) Notes
1. Transport policy
Traditional transport policy
Hansen 2006: Traditional hierarchical and well established institutions, closed/precautious classical-modernist attitudes to dealing with challenges History of UK transport policy (Vigar, 2002)
For most of the 20th C- nations dealt with continued increases in demand for road travel by building more roads Primary aim of UK inter-urban T policy was to facilitate rapid, free flowing movement of people by motor vehicles 'Predict and Provide'- Principal transport concern of national government until mid 1990s = rolling out road programmes, largely disconnected from consideration of other transport roads or other forms of spatial development Predict and Provide under increasing challenge in 80s/90s- theoretical underpinnings undermined, consequences acute and widely recognised
Recognition of the need to pursue a different trajectory to 'predict and provide' led to the emergence of 'new realism' amongst a policy elite (Goodwin et al, 1991) Traditionally efficiency is considered as increasing vehicle traffic speeds (Litman, 1999)
Issues in UK transport/policy Shaw and Docherty (2014)
Congestion: Britain's transport system in most congested in Europe, average Brit spends 8 hours per year in congestion, losses of £15-20 billion to economy each year
Unequal access to mobility
Environmental damage Why do problems occur: (Shaw and Docherty, 2014)
Years of poorly conceived/executed transport policy until 200 Failure to build sufficient infrastructure for demand Unintegrated transport system Privatisation- Profitability focus, transport sector become a 'money printing machine for private sector consultants', focus upon economic gains not practicality and efficiency Predict and provide- attempting to squeeze supply out of historic urban road networks in the 1970s e.g. widening roads, increasing underpasses - adapting old infrastructure, sticking with the car 'Locked in' to the car: empowerment, socioeconomic status, few and unequally distributed alternatives to the car
Changes in UK transport policy needed
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