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Governance Notes

Geography Notes > Transport and Mobilities Notes

This is an extract of our Governance document, which we sell as part of our Transport and Mobilities Notes collection written by the top tier of Oxford University students.

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Transport and Mobilities 3: Governance Notes to discuss changes needed in transport policy, challenges for governance and the role of governance in sustainable transport Contents

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Key Words Transport Policy - Traditional policy, Issues in policy, Changes needed Mobility Governance Governance Challenges - Fragmentation, In Climate Change Context, Multi Level Governance

5. Governance for Low Carbon Transport - Incompatibilities. Power Relations

6. Key References Key words Sustainable transport: the provision of safe, effective and efficient access and mobility into the future while considering the economic, social and environmental needs of society (US Dept of Transport) New realism: conceptual response to the crisis pervading 'predict and provide' orientated UK transport policy in the 1990s New urbanism: people and urban spaces are directly integrated into city design Federalism: set of political ideals that seek to inform federation development Benson and Jordan (2011) Intergovernmentalist perspective: powerful member states the key actors in policy making process (Gulbrandsen and Christensen, 2014) Supranationalism: the increasing multilevel governance character of policy making in the EU (Hooghe and Marks, 2003) Predict and provide (Owens, 1995)- focussing on increasing capacity, demands are projected and equated with needs then met by infrastructure (Vigar, 2002) Notes

1. Transport policy

Traditional transport policy

Hansen 2006: Traditional hierarchical and well established institutions, closed/precautious classical-modernist attitudes to dealing with challenges History of UK transport policy (Vigar, 2002)??

For most of the 20th C- nations dealt with continued increases in demand for road travel by building more roads Primary aim of UK inter-urban T policy was to facilitate rapid, free flowing movement of people by motor vehicles 'Predict and Provide'- Principal transport concern of national government until mid 1990s = rolling out road programmes, largely disconnected from consideration of other transport roads or other forms of spatial development Predict and Provide under increasing challenge in 80s/90s- theoretical underpinnings undermined, consequences acute and widely recognised

Recognition of the need to pursue a different trajectory to 'predict and provide' led to the emergence of 'new realism' amongst a policy elite (Goodwin et al, 1991) Traditionally efficiency is considered as increasing vehicle traffic speeds (Litman, 1999)

Issues in UK transport/policy Shaw and Docherty (2014)Congestion: Britain's transport system in most congested in Europe, average Brit spends 8 hours per year in congestion, losses of PS15-20 billion to economy each year
?????Unequal access to mobility
?????Environmental damage Why do problems occur: (Shaw and Docherty, 2014)???

Years of poorly conceived/executed transport policy until 200 Failure to build sufficient infrastructure for demand Unintegrated transport system Privatisation- Profitability focus, transport sector become a 'money printing machine for private sector consultants', focus upon economic gains not practicality and efficiency Predict and provide- attempting to squeeze supply out of historic urban road networks in the 1970s e.g. widening roads, increasing underpasses - adapting old infrastructure, sticking with the car 'Locked in' to the car: empowerment, socioeconomic status, few and unequally distributed alternatives to the car

Changes in UK transport policy needed

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