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Transport and Mobilities 2: Mobility and development Notes covering accessibility, social exclusion, women in transport and rural/urban mobility in the Global South (GS). Contents:
1. Accessibility - What is Accessibility? Transport inequality. The Role of Transport in social exclusion.
2. Women and Empowerment - Gendered Mobilities, Gendered mobilities in the GS, Role of mobility in empowerment
3. Transport and Development of the GS - Defining development, development policy
4. Global South - Transport in the GS, Urban and Rural mobility in the GS
1. Accessibility What is accessibility?
Accessibility is the ability to be approached, reached or entered (Tyler, 2004) Banister and Berechman (2001)- commenting on factors needed for economic development, investment and political factors lead to accessibility changes, and without investment accessibility cannot change even if economic and political factors create a perfect environment for it Tyler (2004): Accessibility issues through??
Disability Movement (physical displacement) and mobility (ease of movement) 'Accessible journey train' ie) provision of a bus doesn't matter if you can't access it Dependence- needing to travel with someone
Church et al 2000- increasing access to activities requires combating individuals' constraints in addition to transport system improvements Transport social/spatial inequality Peripherality and poor transport provision are key factors in urban social exclusion (Campbell 1993)
Limited accessibility and mobility can result in decreased quality of life/wellbeing and social exclusion. (Pyrialakou et al 2016) Exclusion for: rural, poor, women, low skilled??
Rural- Pyrialakou et al 2016: US rural communities suffer from transport disadvantage due to a lack of transit and a low density of employment, education, recreation, and other opportunities Poor- Goodman and Chesire (2014): expansion into poorer areas doubled users from deprived areas, but combined with recent price risedisproportionately discouraged casual-use trips among residents of poorer areas Women- Goodman and Chesire (2014): Inequalities in London bicycle sharing scheme, women make less than 20% of registered use trips Low skilled- Beyazit (2015) Istanbul Metro transforming industrial areas into CBD, drives off low skilled workers
Role of transport in social exclusion 4 main levels of exclusion through transport (Casas and Demelle, 2014):??
Geographic Economic Time-based Fear based
Developed world: Majority of studies of transport and social exclusion have been conducted within a UK context rather than on developing world (Lucas, 2011) e.g. Church et al 2000: London transport based social exclusion, travel time mapping- lack of `connection' between a quarter of the capital's residents and activities required to participate fully in society Developing world: Lucas 2011: Tshwane region, South Africa: phrase 'working for transport' was quoted several times: the notion that many low paid jobs only provided sufficient wages to cover the travel costs of getting to work and so 'it isn't worth the effort of working' Cevero 2013: Poor most impacted by congestion: buses mostly cater to low income individuals, most impacted by congestion (limited manoeuvrability, slow acceleration)
2. Women and empowerment
Gendered mobilities Gender constructs mobility ?mobility constructs gender (Cresswell and Uteng, 2008) Cresswell and Uteng 2008: How people move (where, how fast, how often etc.) is gendered and continues to reproduce gendered power hierarchies There are many perceived differences in the use of transport between men/womenbut not all women are the same, don't generalise. Categorisation can create social inequality in itself (Rig, 2008) How gender shapes mobility (From Hanson, 2010)????Routes: o Women more likely to do multi-stop routes (Root, 2000) o More likely to serve passengers (usually kids) (McGuckin and Nakamoto 2005) o Patterns more complicated than those of men (Rosenbloom 2006)making more linked trips Sphere: Binary of public and private which has been mapped on to masculine and feminine (Cresswell and Uteng, 2008) o Hanson (2010): dualism that on one side equates women and femininity with the home, the private, with domestic spaces and restricted movement and equates men and masculinity with the nothome, the public, with urban spaces and expansive movement Public transport: More women than men use public transport (Cresswell and Uteng, 2008) Migration: women weigh both reproductive and productive labour demands (Silvey, 2000) Fear based access issues: Lucas 2011: Pretoria, SA: Women particularly threatened whilst on trains at night- Low income female worker talked of a lone female with her child being robbed at knifepoint More impacted by time costs: carers, especially lone mothers, time costs of rearranging childcare (Bryson et al, 1997) Working: o women's decisions to participate in labour market influenced by household structure (Sheffield- Smith 1997) o Women are more likely work at home (Rosenbloom 2006) o less likely to have a mobile workplace like construction (Hanson and Pratt 1995) o Women work closer to home (Schwanen et al, 2002- Netherlands) Social travel: women engage in more non-work travel (Vance and Iovanna 2007) Spatial range: Hanson 2010 spatial range of women's daily mobility is smaller than men's, spatial range of girls' activities is smaller than for boys (O'Brien et al, 2000)
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