World Cities And Infrastructure Notes
This is a sample of our (approximately) 7 page long World Cities And Infrastructure notes, which we sell as part of the Transport and Mobilities Notes collection, a 2.1 package written at Oxford University in 2016 that contains (approximately) 30 pages of notes across 4 different documents.
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World Cities And Infrastructure Revision
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Transport and Mobilities 1: World cities and infrastructure Notes to discuss the concept of world cities, the politics of infrastructure and the relationship between infrastructure and economic development (explored further in the Development notes) Contents:
Key Words World Cities - What are world cities? Futures for world cities. Infrastructure - What is infrastructure? Politics of infrastructure. Infrastructure and Development - What does infrastructure create? Key references.
Key words Premium network spaces (Graham, 2000)- 'New or retrofitted transport, telecommunications, power or water infrastructures that are customised precisely to the needs of powerful users and spaces, whilst bypassing less powerful users and spaces' Externalities: (Prud'Homme et al, 2014) indirect economic gains by economic/non economic actors because of the proximity of other actors/various services aimed at them
1. World Cities What are world cities?
Friedman (1986): World cities are:
Top of the global urban hierarchy 'Basing points' in spatial organisation of production and markets A concentration of advanced producers, financial services and headquarters The most important destinations of migration Contain stark spatial/class/social polarisation
Taylor et al (2010): World Cities are tapestries of flows of people, goods and information across multiple spatial scales. World cities are shaped by interactions with other cities across the world. These flows organised by two logics
1. Hierarchical-territorial logic: flows between city and remote hinterlands, based upon hierarchy and competition, links to Christaller's (1933) central place theory- central places are a chief characteristic of the city, city has its own hinterland and is part of another city's hinterland
2. Network logic: flows by horizontal relation between city and remote hinterlands, based upon complementarity, cooperation and complexity Beaverstock et al 2000: cities retain wealth, control and power because of what flows through them, rather than what they statically contain GaWC 2010 and 2012: Globalization and World Cities (GaWC) Research Network: To appreciate relations between cities, created a hierarchy of global cities from alphabeta-gamma-high sufficiency-suficiency. London and New York considered most 'global' cities. Criteria used indicate factors important for a global city:
Intercity flows: distribution of advanced producer services across cities Airline connections Internet connectivity
*Little use of actual transport infrastructure* (commented by Niedzielski and Malecki, 2012)
Source of Image: Wikipedia Futures for world cities
New forms of mobility emerging which may alter the position of a city in the wider urban system (e.g. digital technologies) Connections with other cities are increasingly important to world cities, but local flows within the urban region and the nation-state are also significant Investments in transport infrastructures are paramount to being part of the global economy
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