This is an extract of our Pic Binaries document, which we sell as part of our Geography Notes collection written by the top tier of University Of Exeter students.
The following is a more accessble plain text extract of the PDF sample above, taken from our Geography Notes. Due to the challenges of extracting text from PDFs, it will have odd formatting:
Place, Identity and Culture Binaries 1: Society - Space Problem with human geography and binaries:
* Effect on life chances
- Multiple categories
- Different time/places
? Often too easy to categorise people - very difficult to do so, and must be careful
? Lack of fluidity etc
? (Valentine, 2001) Social categories taken for granted as "fixed" and mutually exclusive For instance, people act differently in the company of differing audiences such as family versus friends NOTE: Identity is a product of its time
* Social differentiation... in space
- Often the people with the least power and resources are the ones categorised most
- Materialistic and symbolic considerations:
~ London Riots Example: Media said it was the 'estates' as it was an easy categorisation Approach One: From Society to Space
* Spatial arrangements as a reflection of social divisions e.g. Rich people in affluent places
- Assumption that we can map society
- "safe" categorising
* "Society is mapped onto space" Smith 2005
* Ability to pay... discrimination
- USA Example: Racisms in the deep south ? mapping due to social discrimination
* Space as scientific
* Space as an index
* "given" social categories and identities Disadvantages
* Social categories are socially constructed
- Theoretical: Made up in reality
- The imagined becomes real
* Methodological: using spatial as a measure of the social
* Ethical: Social divisions as starting points
- Why they occur
- Where from Approach Two: Spatial Construction of Society The active contribution of space to social identity Where categories come from; how they are produced; the difference that space makes
* Key arguments
- Space itself has a material reality and a symbolic significance
- Geographies are negotiated and struggled over
~ Material practice
~ Cultural politics Doreen Massey "Space is always in the process of being made." Difficulties
* Assumption of binary social divides- its not always clearly defined
* Binary divides are a basic tool for exploring social construction
* Preoccupation with "other" (rather than mainstream) Approach Three: Thirdspace
* Social categories are made through practice
* Social worlds can be renegotiated
* Identity may not be contained in a particular category - liminal spaces
* (Valentine, 2001) Contested, resisted and renegotiated Ed Sojo (1996) : Thirdspace
* Thirdspace as the location for performing new identities reclaiming new identities; reclaiming symbolic spaces
* Thirdspace as a position from which to speak
- Bell Hooks (1990): Marginalised space, provides inner power
- "Nourishes ones capacity to resist."
* Thirdspace as a place where social categories are resisted Difficulties
* Boundaries as key places?
* Denial of political potency of established social difference?
* Radically different
* Terns attention away from assumption
* Points vision to strategy
* Forces us to accept ambiguity and complexity of society and space
* What brings people together? ? more individualised than collective?
Binaries 2: Global - Local Spaces of geographical thought:
- Binary oversimplifies the two
- E.g. Local is difficult to categories; national/state/region/town?
- Global farmed through local activities. E.g. TNC's have 'home base'
? Why are concepts of the local and global important in human geography?
THE LOCAL Nick Entrikin: 3 reasons why LOCAL is important 1 "Empirical significance of place"
- Everywhere is not the same
- Economic, social, cultural differences
- Life changes still affected by lottery of location 2 "Normative significance of place"
- Valued variations
- People cherish and highlight uniqueness's
- Local places have significance
"Epistemological significance of place"
- Local understandings
- Geographers produce local knowledge's
THE GLOBAL Phil Crang: 4 discourses of the global 1 Exploration
- Seen in historical geography, colonialisation
- Travel still shapes much of geography
- Expeditions for education
- Driven by desire to know the world 2 Development
- Hope of improving the world
- Rectify ignorance of the worlds diversity
- Explain and act against inequalities 3 Environmentalism
- Passion for saving the world
- Thinking global essential: need to understand scale of problems
- Also to understand impact of our local actions on the globe 4 Time-space Compression
- Emphasis on shrinking of the world
- Global marketing the local (spaces of geographical thought)
- NOTE: doesn't mean everywhere is the same
- In a globalised world our local lives are led on a global scale Doreen Massey (1994) Need a 'global sense of local.'
* McDonalds means different things to different places
- Maputo: trendy
- Tangiers: Souless
- Manchester: Familiar
* Not all places equally as "wired in"
* Globalisation has linked places because they are different
* Kilburn example
? How can we better understand the relations between the local and the global?
* A collection of local people and places, each being a piece in the broader global pattern
- City: patchwork of people/suburbs/CBD etc
- County: of country or of natural region - can be experienced differently
* Emphasis on boundaries
- Sense of 'my bit'
- We over rarefy the local
* Areas thought to have unique characteristics
* Global intrusions represent a threat to identity
* Political mosaic
- Identity politics
- Insiders and outsiders SYSTEMS
* Local differences are a result of location within the systems of the wider world
Interconnections through world systems (Political, economic, cultural)
- British view: we've been responsible for our own success
- Philippines view: Poor due to climate and lack of resources
- Can't say it's due to local intelligence
- In reality we're all connected
- British exploited Philippines Local systems/power relations important
- History of aid problems
- Internal politics don't help e.g. Mengestu Ethiopia Processes of differentiation (global and local)
- Who are the colonises and the colonised etc
* Connections that one local place has to a host of places all over the world e.g. Migrants sending money home
* Local and global are not different scales
* They are two different ways of approaching the same social and spatial system
- Combining scales better
- Example: "English" tea
- Tea is an English identity but isn't English
- Relies on numerous countries and their own historical networks and commodity
* The local is global and the global is local
* Need a local sense of global. Everything is essentially localised at some point
* Mobility: Cyber space and virtual geographies. How the world is connected in a virtual world
? How are local-global concepts relevant to your geographies?
YOUR LOCAL AREA
* Empirical significance
* Normative significance
* Epistemological significance YOUR LOCAL AFFECTED BY THE GLOBAL
* Time-space compression
Binaries 3: Place - Space INTRODUCTION
space = location?
- If we make it ours, it becomes place
place = occupation of that location
- Lived in, experienced (Taylor)
- People long for sense of place Doreen Massey Jon Agnew: 2 important redefinitions
space/place and scale place = local/nostalgic space = global/progressive the nature of space Newton - space is absolute
- Has its own character Leibniz - space is relational
- Made up of different places
? Space / place as interconnected in human practice
space = field of practice (top down)
- Defined by powerful actors imposing their control and narratives on others
place = encounters within the field of practice (bottom-up)
- Representing the outlooks and actions of more typical folk
- Places can be localised when associated with the familiar
- Role of the feelings of attachment and belonging
? What is place?
Jon Agnew: 3 basic attributes of place
LOCATION: where activities are placed e.g. City
LOCALE: Where activities take place e.g. the home/shop/cinema
SENSE OF PLACE: everywhere is singular, sense of belonging
- Tangible and real
- Good and bad
- Not measurable
- Attachment But note....
- Insiders: provide positive attributes, pride
- Outsiders: often negative, feeling that they don't belong
- "ghostliness" of place (Nigel Thrift) e.g. Alice Springs
~ Old buildings can bring history to the present, evoke emotions
? How are places interconnected with local-global connections?
* Places not having boundaries
- Imagined as articulated movements in networks of social relations, experiences, and understandings
* Key example: Doreen Massey, Kilburn High Road
* Thrift (1999): "place is associational, weaving together all manner of spaces and times"
* Place is not static: place is PROCESS
* Places do not have boundaries: places can be defined by outside LINKAGES
- World that knows no boundaries
* Places do not have single unique identities: places have CONFLICTS
- Claiming presence in place
* Places are specific: but places are CONTINUALLY REPRODUCED
* Place as an everyday wordHe knew his placeShe was put in her placeEverything in its place
Buy the full version of these notes or essay plans and more in our Geography Notes.