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Nationalism/IdentitiesNot reducible to any one development, but reliant on a convergence of several, which implies that a purer understanding of nationalism is indeed a modern phenomenon. o Requires a sense of the state, mobilisiation of citizens, mass politics and communication. To an extent a question of heuristics. 'Beneath the decline of sacred communities, languages and lineages, a fundamental change was taking place in modes of apprehending the world, which, more than anything else, made it possible to "think" the nation. (Anderson) o Nationalism, then, could be best described as modern without being new. A cumulative process, requiring certain strands of development to come together.
?????Review: Calhoun perceives Nationalism essentially as a discursive formation, a form of rhetoric that has become so universal and implicated in a wide variety of beliefs across the world. It is also boundary making and essentialist. In his eyes ethnicities contribute to the development of a national self -consciousness, but doesn't provide the socio-cultural groups ready to become nations.
?????Nations are constituted by the will of the people, and the political legitimacy ascended from the people .
?????Nations have to exist within the context of nationalism, each nation represents a particular way of thinking about what it means to be a people, and how they fit into a broader world system.-> system is one of capitalist nation states, and the pressure these put upon others to reproduce nationalist discourse.
?????Calhoun possesses a state centred modernist approach, by which nationalism is primary and the nation secondary. A modern development.
?????Chatterjee's argument: in each case of nationalism, though imported from the west, has to be reinvented in indigenous cultural terms in Africa and Asia. (Which suggests the centrality of ethnicity - but still centred on Western notions? State organisation, etc?)
?????Rhetoric of the nation consists of: boundaries, indivisibility, sovereignty, ascending notion of legitimacy, popular participation, direct membership, culture, temporal depth, common descent and ethnicity
?????Nationalism has three dimensions: 1)nationalism as a discourse: the production of a cultural understanding and a rhetoric. 2) nationalism as a project: social movements and state policies by which people attempt to advance the interests of collectivities.3) nationalism as evaluation: political and cultural ideologies that claim superiority for particular nations (which gives the status of an ethical imperative).
?????The modernity and diversity of nationalisms: cultural content of nations is important but it cannot fully explain them. 'State formation was the single most important factor in changing the form and significance of cultural variations.'
?????'Nationalism is a way of constructing identity that it does not address such variation so much as it simply posits temporal depth and internal integration.' 11 eg, Kedourie: 'the doctrine holds that humanity is naturally divided into nations, that nations are known by certain characteristics which can be ascertained, and that the only legitimate type of government is national selfgovernment.' o
'although nationalism, ethnicity and kinship represent three distinct forms of social solidarity, they may overlap, or articulate with one another'. 29
?????Constructionists: emphasize the historical ad sociological processes by which nations are created, instrumentalists stress this invention as a self-conscious and manipulative project carried out by elites to secure their own power. Primordialists: argue nationalism and ethnicity are older than it appears, eg, most powerful attraction in Africa of the Middle East was formerly to tribes not states. o
Kinship, descent, ethnicity and nationality: modern nations have roots in old ethnic identities, but this is only one aspect of a larger picture. Modern claim to nationhood is evoked through the language of kinship and descent.
'nationality, thus becomes one large categorical identity that encompasses many smaller categories...rhetoric posits whole categories of people without reference to their internal differentiation, or claims priority over all internal differences.'
'Nationalism thus draws on previous identities and traditions, and national identities reflect those traditions. But nationalism fundamentally transforms the pre-existing ethnic identities and gives new significance to cultural inheritances'. Ethnic roots and cultural distinctiveness are only aspects- and not even necessarily universal aspects- of the creation of modern invention.'
Nations and Nationalism: 'Nationhood, thus, cannot be defined objectively, prior to political processes, o either cultural or structural grounds. This is so, crucially, because nations are in part made by nationalism'.
'nation, is a particular way of thinking about what it means to be a people, and how the people thus defined might fit into a broader world system'.
'nationalism moves people emotionally, not least because it provides a sense f location in a large and complex world and an enormous reach of history. It is crucial to grasp that nationalism is a positive source of
meaning- and even sometimes inspiration- and of mutual commitment among very large groups of people'. J Hutchinson and A. Smith: Nationalism Part II: Kedourie(nationalism and self-determination): nationalism is a form of secular millenarianism that has arisen from Kantian conceptions of human beings as autonomous, led to politics replacing religion as the key to salvation. Nationalist=powerful and destructive force-> appeal explained by th breakdown of traditional values, and the rise of the restless secular educated generation, ambitious for power but excluded from its proper estate. Power of ideas a s a homogenising force. Eg: Young Italy, Young Egypt, Young Turks, Young Arab party. Gellner (nationalism and modernisation): need for modern societies to have cultural homogeneity that creates nationalism-> is sociologically rooted in modernity., but itself is a relatively weak force. Industrialisation and modernisation notoriously proceed in an uneven manner' 60...the uneven impact of this wave generates a sharp social stratification which is unhallowed by custom, and not well protected by social mechanisms Nairn: dynamism of romantic nationalism, appeal to an educated middle class, and ability to mobilise inter class support. It arises in threatened and underdeveloped peripheral societies, where intelligentsia are able to mobilise the support of the masses around developmental goals of the bourgeoisie. These are all instrumentalist perspectives of nationalism. Hobsbawm argued the nation was one of many traditions invented by political elites in order to legitimise their power in a century of democratisation and revolution. 'an invented tradition Anderson: modern state is an artefact, imagined political community-> understand national distinctiveness in terms of style of imagination and the institutions that make it possible. Breiully: rise of the modern bureaucratic state is the central factor in the genesis of nationalism: conflict emerged between the claims of state and civil society in the 17 th century Smith: transformed position of the secular intellectual- down to rationalism and science. Rise of ethnic historicism important. Nationalism arises out of a pervasive moral crisis of dual legitimation, divine authority challenged by secular state power. Breuilly Nationalism Views nationalism as a form of politics created by the state, uses comparative history to identify 3 objectives of nationalist movements: unification (19 th Century Germany and Italy), reform (Turkey, China, Japan) and separation (19 th Century Eastern European), and Anticolonial (India and East Africa). Crucially he believes that the opposition to the state has been most influential in the shaping of nationalism. (Anticonstructivist?) Tactics of nationalism: coordination, mobilisation, and legitimation.
In refuting the rise of nationalism as related to identity issues or mass socio-economic change he relates 'nationalism to the objective of obtaining and using state power'. 380 'nationalism is a parasitic movement, shaped by what it opposes'. Weaknesses: nationalist pressure groups are excluded, no discussion of nationalism after the creation of the nation state, no treatment of cultural autonomy for the cause of nationalist movements (eg Wales and language). Interprets nationalism as a consequence of processes of state formation: 65 'natioalism was more important as a product than as a cause of national unification'. Imbrication: an overlapping of edges. For example: compares Arab nationalism in the late ottoman empire with European nationalism at the same time, and with early Egyptian nationalism. Sees it as profoundly separatist, eg against Turkish reforms, numerous counter nationalist movements originated, and then against the British imperial mandate. Or Mehmet Ali, who introduced westernised reforms, was entirely unpopular among the peasants, who welcomed a return to strong Islamic state, but never got it. Arab nationalism the product of intellectuals and a curiosity in search for cultural identity. Eg, George Antonius, located the beginnings of Arab nationalism in Christian intellectual circles, who were able to standardise a written form of Arabic whilst principles of democracy and progress were instilled-> anti-imperial and later anticolonial sentiments. Ultimately, for nationalism to become popular and successful it usually needs a popular backing, if nationalism was just politics, it would not have its support in the search for cultural identity and heritage. Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities: Every successful revolution has defined itself in national terms: 'grounded itself firmly in a territorial and social space inherited previously from the pre-revolutionary past'. 1 Dissipation of nationalism that was long predicted has not occurred at all, if anything 'nation-ness is the most universally legitimate value in the political life of our time' 3. Nationalism essentially a cultural artefact- can be created and modulated. Nation: 'it is an imagined political community- and imagined as both inherently limited and sovereign'. 6 imagined because people do not know one another in the same community but imagine they live in the same shared existence. Gellner's argument : 'nationalism is not the awakening of nations to self consciousness: it invents nations where they do not exist'. -> communities existed before but not as nations. However, Anderson believes that all communities beyond small villages of face to face contact are in fact imagined. Thus ' communities are to be distinguished, not by their falsity/genuineness, but by the style in which they are imagined' 6. Limited in the sense it has finite boundaries, sovereign as created in a time where other forms of sovereignty such as monarchy were being disposed of, and a
community, conceived with deep, horizontal comradeship despite reality of inequality that probably exists. Cultural roots: Religious Community: 'the fall of latin exemplified a larger process in which the sacred communities integrated by old sacred languages were gradually fragmented, pluralised, and territorialised'. 19 imagining a nation made possible when 3 fundamental cultural conceptions lost their grip on mankind: 1) script language offered privileged access to ontological truth eg Christendom, Islam. 2) society naturally organised around and under high centres (monarchs). 3) cosmology and history undistinguishable, origins of the world and men essential identical-> these things combined gave men a rooted sense of existence and everyday explanation for reality. New search was on for a way of linking fraternity, power and time together, 'nothing perhaps ore precipitated this search, nor made it more fruitful, than print-capitalism'
36. The origins of national consciousness: 'if manuscript knowledge was scarce and arcane lore, print knowledge lived by reproducibility and dissemination'-> existed a revolutionary vernacularizing thrust of capitalism. Print languages laid the basis for national consciousness in three distinct ways: 1) unified fields of exchanges of communication, became aware of the others in their language field. 2) gave a new fixity to language, helped to build that image of antiquity so central to the subjective idea of the nation. 3) created languages of power, different from that of old admin vernacular. 'the convergence of capitalism and print technology on the fatal diversity of human language created the possibility of a new form of imagined community, which in its basic morphology set the stage for the modern nation.' 46. Official nationalism: middle of the nineteenth century these developed. Historically impossible until after the appearance of popular linguistic nationalism, for at bottom, they were responses by power groups, primarily, but not exclusively, dynastic and aristocratic- threatened with exclusion from, or marginalisation in, popular imagined communities.' Official nationalism concealed a discrepancy between national and dynastic realm. The last wave of nationalisms: colonial territories in Africa and Asia a response the new style global imperialism made possible by the achievements of industrial capitalism. Chatterjee: Nationalist Thought in the Colonial World 'nationalism sets out to assert its freedom from European domination. But in the every conception of its project, it remains a prisoner of the prevalent European intellectual fashions.' 10 'why is it that non-european colonial countries have no historical alternative but to try to approximate the given attributes of modernity when that very process of approximation means their continued subjection under a world order which only sets their tasks for them over which they have no control?'. 10
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