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Medieval Papacy Revision. The Popes?????
Nicholas IV (1288-1292) - Franciscan Interregnum (1292-94). Celestine V (1294) - pusillanimous Boniface VIII (1294-1303) - greedy politician Benedict XI (1303-04) - moderate Clement V (1305-1314). Interregnum (1314-1316). John XXII (1316-1334). Benedict XII (1334-1342). Clement VI (1342-1352).
George Holmes, Florence, Rome and the Origins of the Renaissance (Clarendon, 1986). Chapter 4: The Ascendancy of Florence???
1288-1292: Nicholas IV o Not interventionalist o First Franciscan to become pope 1284 o After a deadlock, Celestine V is elected.
? An 84-year old hermit from Sulmona
? A 'true' pope if only the battle between French administrators and Roman nobles had not been raging. Celestine V o Disaster
? Favouritism (to Charles II of Naples)
? 12 cardinals are all either French or Neapolitan
? Tries to make the Benedictine Monte Cassino, part of his own Order.
? He's basically an appendage of the Angevin monarchy. Nobility o Different definitions
? A man of long-standing wealth with pleasing manners
? Aristotle's Ethics ? 'the seed of happiness placed by God in a welldisposed soul'. 1300 Boniface VIII puts on the Jubilee. o Apparently,
? Boniface called Florentines the 'fifth element of the world' as they 'seem to rule the world'. o Florence is extremely important = they are the papal bankers.
? 1290 onwards ?
Chapter 7: The Papal Revolution, 1294-1305.?????
Boniface VIII: o Two profound effects
? Papal intervention in Florentine politics
? Migration of the papacy A) Florentine Politics Boniface knows there is a compelling Donati-Cerchi split. o In March-May 1300
? A group of ambassadors (White Guelfs) appeal to Boniface to stop him endorsing the Blacks. o 24 April
? Boniface writes a letter to the Commune demanding cancellation of the arrest of Simone Gherardi degli Spini, Cambio da Sesto and Quintavalle
[who seem to be planning an attack on the Cerchi].
? Threatens excommunication. o 15 May
? Boniface writes how he doesn't want to diminish Florentine power o 23 May
? Sends in Matthew Acquasparta
? A cardinal and minister-general of Franciscans. o Failed to bring peace. o 28 September
? Pope excommunicates Florentine governors o November 1301 o Charles of Valois sent by Boniface to mediate Florence.
? Makes out this is a peace mission to secure harmony between Black and White. Narrative of Florentine events, post-Charles of Valois' entry. By the end of the week o A Black Priorate is formed Christmas Eve 1301 o Simone Donati and Niccolo Cerchi kill each ther outside Florence. January 1302 o The Whites are banished and exiled (including Dante). 559 put to exile.
? Cerchi, Adimari, Gherardini, Della Tossa. 1302 onwards ?
o Florence dominated by Donati, della Tossa and Pazzino de' Pazzi. October 1303 o Election of Benedict IX
? A Venetian Dominican. o Appalled at Boniface's excess
? He sends a legate, Niccolo da Prato (March 1304)
? Negotiates return of a few Whites and Ghibellines. o Blacks angry and they burn stuff down!Why is Boniface involved?
o Spini and Donati
? Gave him the wrong impression o Siena
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