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Historiography Revision Notes

History Notes > General History III: 1400–1650 (Renaissance, Recovery and Reform) Notes

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GHIII Historiography Revision: Capitalism:
- BRENNER DEBATE = key to development of capitalism.
- Marxist: saw class struggle as cause of change, rather than changing prod methods.
- Tensions came from small-scale agriculture's inability to innovate.
- Focuses on unique English environment.
- Also talks of "a nearly unique symbiotic relationship between agriculture and industry".
- Were "wholly disparate overall patterns".
- Croot & Parker:Agree to an extent: "the celebrated class of English yeomanry".However, Brenner over-emphs French peasantry's strength."The first half of the sixteenth century is marked by a sudden upsurge of agrarian capitalism in western Europe".Malthus focuses on demographics.B Geremek's argument: low wages = "a driving force in the evolution of capitalism".R S DuPlessis:Talks of a "Protestant ethic"."Europe's economic center of gravity... shifted to the N Atlantic".Immanuel Wallerstein: Labels overseas expansion and subsequent wealth "the prime solvent of Europe's feudal order".C R Friedrichs:Development was "by no means unilinear".Overseas expansion = "an important stimulus".Le Roy Ladurie: Wars distracting.Kamen: loans = "an instrument for the deterioration and expropriation of an independent peasantry".R Jutte: Capitalism ? "an absolute impoverishment of the rural masses". Education:
- Grafton and Jardine: Humanism had "the cultural seal of superiority".
- Paul Grendler: "without universities, there would have been no Ref". Humanism:
- C G Nauert:Erasmus = "The apogee of reformist humanism"."Quite literally epoch-making... an important force in human history".

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