This is an extract of our Poverty document, which we sell as part of our General History III: 1400–1650 (Renaissance, Recovery and Reform) Notes collection written by the top tier of Oxford University students.
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GIII Revision Notes.
1. What measures were taken to relieve poverty?
- There were different levels of poor relief - from relief payments to tax exemptions.E.g. Augsburg 1558 - 5% reg relief, 5% in crisis yrs, 47%
exempt.Women and children often prioritised.E.g. St Gertrude, Louvain, 1541: >1/2 children. 1561 Segovia - women = 60%. Medina del Campo 83%.Medical needs were sometimes addressed.More advanced than once thought.E.g. San Maria Nuova employed visiting physicians and a surgeon. Nurses often ran pharmacies and admin'd medicines.E.g. Juan de Medina Plan of Poor Relief Practised in Some Spanish Towns (1545) - need for hospitals.1544-1557: hosps set up in LDN e.g. St Bartholomew's & St Thomas' for disease and disability, Christ's and Bridewell for foundlings and rogues.Some hosps set up by individuals.E.g. Hotel-Dieu, Beaune, est 1442 by Nicolas Rolin, chancellor to Duke of Burgundy.E.g. Eng had several hosps: St Leonard, York - 206 places. Also in countryside e.g. St John the Baptist, Winchester = tiny - 6 places.E.g. Florence - 8 for poor, 7 for sick, 6 for spec occupations/profs, 5 for women. Santa Maria Nuova (1289 - 2300 beds), San Paolo (C13th), San Giovanni (1377) and San Matteo (1389).P Elmer and O P Grell emph desire to help poor here.E.g. also for military - 1570: permanent military hosp est in Spain (Valois-Habsburg conflict). 1629: first military hosp France.Emphasised by M Lindemann.Argues "always assumed great significance".E.g. 2000 leper houses France
1225.P Elmer and O P Grell support.Although acknowledges rise of clinical med did not happen until 1790s.
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