Someone recently bought our

students are currently browsing our notes.

X

Reformation Notes

History Notes > General History III: 1400–1650 (Renaissance, Recovery and Reform) Notes

This is an extract of our Reformation document, which we sell as part of our General History III: 1400–1650 (Renaissance, Recovery and Reform) Notes collection written by the top tier of Oxford University students.

The following is a more accessble plain text extract of the PDF sample above, taken from our General History III: 1400–1650 (Renaissance, Recovery and Reform) Notes. Due to the challenges of extracting text from PDFs, it will have odd formatting:

GIII Revision Notes.

Reformation.

1. How much did the Reformation change among lay people?
- The Ref was, to an extent, a popular movement.Ref was "a gloriously disorderly popular movement" (P Marshall). E.g. figure of Karsthans (cocky Lutheran peasant) pop in pamphlets.
- G Parker argues that mid-C16th to mid-C17th, the Reformers themselves believed that they had failed.Talks of "a broader framework of failure" (Parker) as a backdrop to small successes.However, many contemporary Catholics (e.g. Ignatius Loyola) felt the opposite.
- Diff in diff areas: "the Ref was an urban event" (A G Dickens).Supported by G Strauss' study of visitation records (reports e.g. first one not until 1527-8, Luther wrote of 'lamentable wretchedness' in Saxony).Not all visitation records -ve, e.g. James Kittelson - 'report from Strasbourg' shows "an enviably pious pop" (G Parker).Reformist ideals did spread more easily in towns."Germany was a land of towns" (A Pettegree) - ^polit literacy, debate, reading.V. Denmark: only 2 towns of approx. 8000 inhabs (Malmo
and Copenhagen).V. Eng: next biggest after LDN = Norwich, Bristol. Around 10,000 inhabs = same as 14 towns in Germ SW.Pettegree uses this to explain success of Ref in N'lands (35% in towns).Different political situations also contributed to this.E.g. became part of German nationalism.
- Acknowledged by Luther: 'To the Christian Nobility of the German Nation' (1520) - attack on papacy.
- "The nasty side of German nationalism was an intense Italo-phobia" (P Marshall).
- Reichstag complained about papal abuses e.g. list of 102 at Worms.E.g. in France "the ambiguous signals emanating from the court created a decade of confusion" (Pettegree) ? mid1530s (Francis I oppressed).E.g. Charles I took successful action v Ref in N'lands.E.g. Eastern Habsburg lands: powerful estates ? evang as wanted to distance from Cath monarch."The position of the authorities... was particularly important" (K Maag).

Buy the full version of these notes or essay plans and more in our General History III: 1400–1650 (Renaissance, Recovery and Reform) Notes.