History Notes > University Of Cambridge History Notes > Empires and World History (c. 1400-1900) Notes

Paper 21 Essay Plans Notes

This is a sample of our (approximately) page long Paper 21 Essay Plans notes, which we sell as part of the Empires and World History (c. 1400-1900) Notes collection, a 1st Class package written at University Of Cambridge in 2010 that contains (approximately) 30 pages of notes across 7 different documents.

Learn more about our Empires and World History (c. 1400-1900) Notes

The original file is a 'Word (Doc)' whilst this sample is a 'PDF' representation of said file. This means that the formatting here may have errors. The original document you'll receive on purchase should have more polished formatting.

Paper 21 Essay Plans Revision

The following is a plain text extract of the PDF sample above, taken from our Empires and World History (c. 1400-1900) Notes. This text version has had its formatting removed so pay attention to its contents alone rather than its presentation. The version you download will have its original formatting intact and so will be much prettier to look at.

Paper 21: EIC Trade to Dominion

24/05/2010 18:00:00

Was the career of the East India Company after 1750 determined more by the

desire for profit or for political control?

- intro:

• crux: how to explain the shift from commerce to political domination under the auspices of a trading company, whose directors saw no commercial imperative for territorial acquisition?
o before 1757: peaceful + profitable trading concern (90% EIC cargo from India; annual sales of £1.25-2m) o after 1757: wars of conquest that culminate in territorial domination and revenue drawn from land (1765: diwani of Bengal £3m) + informal influence and cash from subsidiary alliances (1833 Charter Act disinvests EIC of all commercial function)  profit now dependent on political control.
 paradigm shift or a development of previous policy? dependent on context of Indian affairs and international war as well as the EIC's interests.

Debate: political domination the aim, or was scramble for territorial power "accidental and inexorable" [Judd, echoing the 19thC view]
Debate: degree of political change (up to 1780s) from pre-conquest polities? [Ray, Bose+Jalal vs. Marshall]. Qualitative changes may indicate a 'reformist' agenda. (Changes necessary for rule, but also expressions of power? [Metcalf]) development: before 1757 vs. after 1757: no longer a matter of survival + increasing state control from the 1780s … thereafter political control relatively more important: o 'enlightened despotism'?
o or [Schumpeter]: glory-seeking? or [Cain+Hopkins]: 'gentlemanly capitalism'. o vs. [Bayly]: government's aim was always to engross trade, labour and production.

- Economic imperative?

military fiscalism: agrarian (and hence political) control out of need to fund rising military costs - context of international war and Indian politics, but ultimately to secure trade.

o 1740s +1750s: army built up defensively vs. French threat in the Carnatic: an economic threat (French intervening on promise of concessions from candidate for nawabdom) 1747: ask British gov't for military assistance; 1756-1763 Seven Years War: EIC army fighting French expeditionary force. o Bengal:
 from 1740s: growth of activity in Bengal (secure framework for trade provided; EIC purchase of textiles increases; private trade increases; Calcutta growing)
 1757 in response to aggression from Siraj-ud-Daula (feeling threatened: Calcutta fortified)  EIC safeguarding economic interest (Clive does not take over straight away - Mir Jaffar, then Mir Qasim installed: diwani only demanded after Buxar) o thereafter military fiscalism: revenues needed to finance growing army used to safeguard territory  'military-fiscal frontier' creeping forward:
[Bayly]: original aim to safeguard trade, but agrarian control guarantees aims.
 from 1765: subsidiary alliances to support the army.
 1756: 3000  1766: 26,000 troops in Bengal.
 1814: Bengal Army 65,000 sepoys o [Bayly]: fits with wider context of European expansion; expansion of garrison state in France + Russia  fuels secondary conquests (Napoleon reorganizing conquered territories to pay for the army).

private financial concerns: British private merchants and EIC servants increasingly dominant in inter-Asian 'country trade' + Indian finance; had helped bring Indian rulers into dependence through loans  debt trap o e.g. Arcot: dependent on British financial aid during war of succession 
1800: Arcot annexed. o e.g. Awadh  1800: western territories ceded because of debt.

mercantilism: Indian taxes and goods used to finance Asian trade (esp. for Chinese tea) without need for silver imports: opium buying monopoly in Bengal, 1773. +
after 1806: less Mexican silver (wars in S. America) o [Mukerji]: monopoly rights assured the EIC exclusive rights, but not low prices  political control.

****************************End Of Sample*****************************

Buy the full version of these notes or essay plans and more in our Empires and World History (c. 1400-1900) Notes.